Report ITU-R SM.2351-2
Smart grid utility management systems
….PURE TONE noise on the powerlines and PLC
An early candidate for consideration was power line communications/telecommunications (PLC) following on from the simplistic rationale that the electricity supply lines themselves provide ubiquitous connectivity across all parts of the electricity supply grid and that the necessary data signals could be sent end‑to-end over the power lines themselves. This ignored some important points such as attenuation and noise along the power lines and how to route signals around the grid network, and crucially the integrity of the data.
….noise on the powerlines and PLC
……wireless Smart Grid networks are resilient to link breaks and power outages. [ this is why the pure tone noise violations are constant and non stop 24/7. I have recorded the pure tones during major power outages and have documented these outages going back 11 years! ……Sandaura
9 Impact of widespread deployment of wired and wireless networks used for power grid management systems on spectrum availability
One of the objectives of the 3GPP cellular wireless technologies and the IEEE 802 family of standards is that the spectrum availability will not be affected by interference associated with wide-spread deployment of such technologies and devices.
This is vital consideration given that:
– There are currently millions of installed wireless smart grid devices in a variety of countries and regions, e.g. Europe, Australia, North America, that are operating in shared spectrum. These deployments are growing and more are planned in these geographic regions because they have been successful and effective.
– Mobile consumer wireless devices are in wide use globally. Each device may transfer gigabytes of data per month. The data usage of wireless smart grid devices is orders of magnitude smaller. The licensed spectrum, which is managed by wireless carriers, can easily handle the incremental traffic.
– Existing regulations by regulators such as the Federal Communications Commission and UK Ofcom have successfully allowed for millions of wireless Smart grid devices to operate without harm to each other.
– IEEE 802 wireless standards use a variety of technologies, e.g. frequency hopping, mesh routing, fragmentation, coding, and high burst rate, which enable reliable wireless Smart Grid Networks. In addition,
wireless Smart Grid networks are resilient to link breaks and power outages.
– Cellular wireless 3GPP technologies use a variety of techniques such as high level modulation and coding, resource block allocation, interference cancellation and mitigation, and MIMO to utilize the allocated spectrum efficiently. Additionally, Coordinated Multipoint provides additional robustness.
– New cognitive radio sharing technologies developed within the IEEE 802 Standards can make efficient use of spectrum while doing no harm to other primary users operating in these bands or the adjacent bands.
– Features embedded within IEEE 802 standards such as spectrum sensing, spectrum etiquette, channel set management and co-existence will ensure minimal interference to themselves and others. [but that is a lie: it is causing interference and has done so the day the so called smart grid was turned on!!!]
– Cellular wireless 3GPP technologies are continuously evolving and new features relevant to smart grids have been introduced in 3GPP Release 13 in order to support:
– A maximum coupling loss of 164 dB.
– Operation during at least 10 years on a 5 Wh (Watt-hour) battery for traffic patterns characterized by small infrequent data transmission.
– Latency of at most 10 seconds for transmission of a small packet even at the edge of the system, i.e. at 164 dB coupling loss.
– Capacity of supporting at least 60 000 devices per square kilometer.
– Secure transmission of data packets through the use of encryption and integrity protection.
– Low complexity system and device design to facilitate support for a large range of MTC applications.
– Wired Ethernet links do not use wireless spectrum, and are generally mandated to comply with applicable local and national codes for the limitation of electromagnetic interference for non-transmitting systems. As such, there should be no additional interference considerations to radiocommunication associated with the use of Ethernet in the implementation of wireless and wired technologies and devices used in support of power grid management systems.
One of the objectives of the 3GPP family of standards is that the spectrum availability will not be affected by interference associated with wide-spread deployment of such technologies and devices considering:
– widespread, global deployment of systems providing global roaming of millions of user equipment,
– reliable coverage of cellular network almost everywhere globally.
High-capacity, two-way communication networks employing wireless, PLT, or other telecommunications technologies that couple sensors and smart meters can transform existing distribution networks for utilities into smart grids.
Smart metering and communications via smart grid networks will in principle allow consumers to monitor and change their patterns of consumption to their best advantage. Utilities will also be able to introduce real time pricing measures in which charges can be adjusted continually to take account of considerations of total demand and the integrity of distribution grids. It will also be possible, in principle, to regulate the demand from particular classes of high usage domestic appliances and industrial equipment.
The overall objective is that these interactive smart grid networks can be monitored and controlled to enhance the efficiency, reliability, and security of the distribution networks for electricity, gas and water supplies, while assuring consumers of the continuity of supply.
LOOK AT ALL THE DEVICES CAPABLE OF INTERFERENCE ON THE POWER LINES. THE POWER LINES WERE NEVER DESIGNED OR INTENDED FOR THIS TECHNOLOGY. THE WIRES ARE NOT SHIELDED TO PROTECT US FROM EMF, RF/MICROWAVE. THE BY PRODUCT OF THIS POLLUTION IS THE THE UNLAWFUL VIOLATIONS OF PURE TONE NOISE. THIS IS MAN MADE AND NOT ALLOWED IN OUR AIR. WE ARE LIVING IN LAWLESS TIMES WHERE WE ARE MIRED IN INJUSTICES AND CORRUPTION. THE SMART GRID POLLUTION IS BEING IGNORED AND THE SO CALLED EXPERTS ARE COMPLICIT TO THE STATE/FEDRERAL GOV’TS AND CORP AMERICA FOR ALLOWING THIS HUMANITARIAN CRIME…….SANDAURA
The IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards committee has developed several wireless standards that are being used to support Smart Grid applications.
These solutions include:
– Wireless standards that support point-to-multipoint wireless
- IEEE 802.11
- IEEE 802.16
- IEEE 802.20
- IEEE 802.22
– Wireless standards that support wireless mesh
- IEEE 802.15.4
- IEEE 802.11
Other wireless communication technologies that can contribute to smart grid requirements include cellular technologies and sound broadcasting. Cellular networks under 3GPP responsibility (i.e. GSM/EDGE, WCDMA/HSPA and LTE) have evolved from providing telephony services to support a wide range of data applications, with in-built security and quality of service support. In recent 3GPP releases standardization enhancements for machine-type communication (MTC) have also been introduced, including support for congestion control, improved device battery lifetime, ultra-low complexity devices, increasing numbers of devices, and improved indoor coverage as elaborated up in chapter 9. Smart meters are available with individual monitoring and control functions provided using 3GPP technologies. Also, inaudible subcarriers have been used for decades for simple wide area switching between metering tariffs using FM broadcasting networks in the USA and the LF 198 kHz national coverage broadcasting service in the United Kingdom. The IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards committee has developed several standards that are being used to support smart grid applications.
8 Interference considerations associated with the implementation of wired and wireless data transmission technologies used in power grid management systems
The IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee has developed many wireless technologies that have demonstrated interference resilient communications to enable power grid management without interference to others.