Associate professor: Wireless radiation – the biggest full-scale biomedical experiment ever done on Earth

Associate professor: Wireless radiation – the biggest full-scale biomedical experiment ever done on Earth

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SMART METERS AND DIRTY ELECTRICITY

Dirty Electricity

It’s Not Just Wireless That’s Causing Health Problems

 

For information on a filter that reduces dirty electricity by 90% and has been a godsend for many people with electromagnetic hypersensitivity, call the director of the Smart Meter Education Network, Linda Kurtz, at 769-4241 (area code 734). A phone call is best, as you can discuss your individual situation with Linda, but you can also email her at SmartMeterEducationNetwork@gmail.com.This filter mitigates dirty electricity from smart meters, solar systems, PLC analog meters (power line over cable), TWACs, generators, and inverters.

DTE’s so-called opt-out meter is just a smart meter with the wireless turned off. It will hurt you nearly as much as the smart meter because of the “dirty electricity” generated by the meter. If you wish to avoid the health (and privacy) problems associated with smart meters, then you must keep your analog meter.

Turning off the radiofrequency will not solve the health (or the privacy) problems associated with DTE and Consumers Energy smart meters.  Digital meters—whether or not “smart”—cause dirty electricity to flow through your home’s wiring. The problem is what is called the “switched mode power supply.” Switched mode power supplies are used to run the digital meter (whether a smart meter or DTE’s radio-off opt-out meter). In order for a smart meter to be powered, the 240 volts coming off the power line to the meter must be stepped down to 4–10 volts.  A switched mode power supply is the device used to step down the voltage from 240 volts to 4-10 volts. This generates an enormous amount of what is commonly known as “dirty electricity” and referred to by electricians and electrical engineers as “voltage transients,” “voltage harmonics,” “line noise,” and “power quality issues.”

Dirty electricity is a spiky, pulsed, highly variable electrical current that rides through all the circuitry of a building.  It has devastating health effects. Many people are already experiencing those effects, which include high blood pressure, tinnitus, insomnia, and cognitive difficulties. The Nevada Consumer Protection Bureau reached an agreement with the Nevada Public Utilities Commission to allow individuals to keep their analog meters in part because of health problems associated with the switched mode power suppliesPrevention Magazinereports on the hazards of dirty electricity.

line noise, dirty electricity, voltage, transient, harmonic, power, windmill, 60hzPeople who have had their smart meter’s wireless turned off are experiencing the same health problems as people with smart meters, just to a slightly lesser degree (click here to read their personal testimony and here for another story). Our cells cannot handle a highly variable current, and build up a sugar coating around themselves, which means it’s harder for nutrients to get in and wastes to get out. In addition, these electromagnetic currents cause the bonds holding DNA together to break, increasing the risk of cancer. Think of a jackhammer going off and on every day, 24/7. That is what the cells in your body experience. Even though you can’t feel it, it’s still hurting you. Brain cancers take 10 years to develop, and few people feel the cancer. In addition to all that, the electromagnetic frequencies knock calcium ions off the cell membrane, causing a host of effects.

DTE’s so-called opt-out meter is just a smart meter with the wireless turned off. It will hurt you nearly as much as the smart meter. Many older-style digital meter do not seem to create the dirty electricity problems that smart meters and so-called opt-out meters do. The reason is this: the older-style digital meters do not measure electricity in the fine-grained  manner that the new meters do. These meters are constantly active, recording data and making computations at up to millisecond intervals. This means  they are cycling—on-off, on-off—constantly. It is this on-off cycling that is part of what creates the spiky dirty electricity.  These new meters have what’s called a chopper circuit—the name is illustrative of what we’ve just been talking about—which rapidly switches the voltage on and off. In so doing, it creates ultra-high frequencies, and very sharp, fast  transient voltage spikes, up to 70,000 volts/second. Part of the reason some people hear their smart meter making sounds is that the ultra-high frequencies they generate can be picked up by some human ears.

The magnetic field generated is a huge part of the problem. The current running through your house is an electromagnetic current. When the electric current runs through the wiring, it generates a magnetic field at right angles to the electric current.  This means that you are surrounded in every dimension by an electromagnetic current—it’s like being at the center of a hurricane, with the wiring on all the walls, the ceiling lights, and the wires running through the basement completely encapsulating you.

Broadband over powerline (BPL) and wind turbines cause the same dirty electricity problems.

See the following links for more information on switched mode power supplies:

See these links for pictures and more information on dirty electricity and/or switched mode power supplies.

Your privacy is still invaded. The radio-off opt-out meter still collects the same fine-grained usage data as a smart meter. The only thing that has been turned off is the radio-transmitter. None of the data-collection software has been turned off.

http://www.smartmetereducationnetwork.com/dirty-electricity-and-smart-meters.php

CDC Finds Brain, Liver And Thyroid Cancers Increasing Among US Children 2001-2014

CDC Finds Brain, Liver And Thyroid Cancers Increasing Among US Children 2001-2014

The CDC presented new findings of increasing rates of brain cancer, renal cancer, hepatic (liver) cancer, and thyroid cancer among individuals under 20 years old in the USA after analyzing 2001–2014  US National Cancer statistics tumor data from 48 states (covering 98% of the US population).

These findings of increased nervous system rates were presented at the 2018 American Society of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Conference in May, 2018 and also at the 67th Annual Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Conference April 16–19, 2018.

Rates of brain, renal, hepatic, and thyroid cancers increased… US CDC 2018).

See selected excerpts from the 2018 CDC presentations below (including PDF). 

 2018 American Society of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Conference
“INCIDENCE RATES AND TRENDS OF PEDIATRIC CANCER — UNITED STATES, 2001–2014”
David Siegel, Jun Li, S. Jane Henley, Reda Wilson, Natasha Buchanan Lunsford, Eric Tai, Elizabeth Van Dyne
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
“increased for non-Hodgkin lymphomas except Burkitt lymphoma,  central nervous system neoplasms, renal tumors , hepatic tumors , and thyroid carcinomas…”
“Results: We identified 196,200 cases of pediatric cancer during 2001–2014. The overall cancer incidence rate was 173.0 per 1 million; incidence rates were highest for leukemia (45.6), brain tumors (30.8), and lymphoma (26.0). Rates were highest among males, aged 0–4 years, nonHispanic whites, the Northeast US Census region, the top 25% of counties by economic status, and metropolitan counties. The overall pediatric cancer incidence rate increased (AAPC=0.7, 95% CI, 0.5–0.8) during 2001–2014 and contained no joinpoints.
Rates increased in each stratum of sex, age, race/ethnicity (except non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native), region, economic status, and rural/urban classification. Rates were stable for most individual cancer types, but increased for non-Hodgkin lymphomas except Burkitt lymphoma (ICCC group II(b), AAPC=1.2, 95% CI, 0.4–2.0), central nervous system neoplasms (group III, AAPC=0.4, 95% 260 CI, 0.1–0.8), renal tumors (group VI, AAPC=0.6, 95% CI, 0.1–1.1), hepatic tumors (group VII, AAPC=2.5, 95% CI, 1.0–4.0), and thyroid carcinomas (group XI(b), AAPC=4.8, 95% CI, 4.2– 5.5). Rates of malignant melanoma decreased (group XI(d), AAPC=-2.6, 95% CI, -4.7– -0.4). “

EHT Note: “Central Nervous System Neoplasms”  can include tumors of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges of the brain.

67th Annual Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) Conference April 16–19, 2018
“Incidence Rates and Trends of Pediatric Cancer — United States, 2001–2014”
David Siegel, J. Li, S.J. Henley, R. Wilson, N. Buchanan Lunsford, E. Tai, E.A. Van Dyne
Read the Abstract from the Conference on page 108 https://www.cdc.gov/eis/downloads/eis-conference-2018-508.pdf#page=120

“The overall pediatric cancer incidence rate increased (AAPC=0.7, 95% CI, 0.5–0.8) during 2001–2014 and contained no joinpoints. Rates increased across sex, age, race/ethnicity, region, economic status, and rural/urban status.”

“Rates of brain, renal, hepatic, and thyroid cancers increased, and rates of melanoma decreased.”

“Conclusions: This study documents increased rates of pediatric cancer during 2001–2014. Increased overall rates of brain and hepatic cancer and decreased rates of melanoma are novel findings using data since 2010. Next steps in addressing changing rates could include investigation of diagnostic and reporting standards, host biologic factors, or environmental exposures.”

https://ehtrust.org/cdc-finds-brain-liver-and-thyroid-cancers-increasing-among-us-children-2001-2014/

Push smart meter deadline to 2023 urges Citizens Advice

Push smart meter deadline to 2023 urges Citizens Advice

 

Image: British Gas.

The smart meter roll-out should be extended to 2023 to address a number of issues that have emerged for consumers, according to Citizens Advice.

The consumer watchdog went public late last week on the issue, with director of energy Victoria MacGregor appearing on morning television to call on the government to extend the installation programme by three years.

She revealed that 3,000 people had contacted Citizens Advice over 2017 to report issues with their meters, most notably around the use of first generation SMETS1 meters that lose their smart functionality when consumers switch supplier.

The charity group also claimed that consumers were suffering from aggressive sales practices from suppliers trying to get smart meters installed, problems with installations, and customers having to submit their meter readings manually despite having a smart meter installed.

“We’re worried about how the rollout is going,” MacGregor said, adding that the deadline for installations should be extended to give time for these issues to be resolved.

“We really want the smart meter roll-out to work because we think, ultimately, smart meters are going to bring great benefits to consumers.

“It’s vital the government gets this right,” she added.

The most recent figures from the Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) up to the end of March show that just over 10 million smart meters have been installed in UK homes, with little more than a million non-domestic meters in place.

This leaves around 42 million remaining with less than two years until the existing 2020 deadline.

Citizens Advice claims consumer confidence in the rollout will “continue to be undermined” if this is not extended, which would also allow time for a new cost benefit analysis to scrutinise the rollout on behalf of consumers.

The most recent analysis was published in 2016 and Citizens Advice claims the government needs to publish updated information to reflect that changing rollout and associated costs.

The smart meter roll-out has faced significant criticism for months owing to its slow progress, most recently by shadow energy minister Alan Whitehead and Conservative backbencher James Heappey agreeing that the programme showed all the signs of a car crash.

A number of big suppliers have faced disciplinary action for late delivery, most recently Npower which was fined £2.4 million after it failed to install advanced meters for some electricity business customers.

Despite these issues, BEIS has remained steadfast in its 2020 commitment with energy and clean growth minister Claire Perry releasing a statement to counter Citizens’ Advice campaign.

“The rollout is making good progress. Pushing back the rollout would only delay millions of households from enjoying the substantial benefits of moving to a smart energy system,” she said.

https://www.current-news.co.uk/news/push-smart-meter-deadline-to-2023-urges-citizens-advice

Residents Voice Concerns Over ‘Outrageous Water Bills’ in Haltom City

Residents Voice Concerns Over ‘Outrageous Water Bills’ in Haltom City

Some residents say they have little faith in the smart meters and want them out

Melanie Montgomery used to take her time washing dishes. But lately, she feels rushed and paranoid about letting the water run too long. (Published Monday, Aug. 13, 2018)

Melanie Montgomery used to take her time washing dishes. But lately, she feels rushed and paranoid about letting the water run too long.

“It’s very frustrating,” Montgomery said. Back in January, her bill was $82. Fast forward to July — it nearly tripled.

“The last four years we’ve used same amount of water every year,” said Montgomery.

But according to her bill, she used 349 more water this year compared to last year.

“There’s one day that I looked up that it shows 25 gallons of water every single hour. How is that possible?” she asked.

Montgomery said it all started when Haltom City took out the old water meters and hired a company, called Fathom, to install smart meters.

“When I called they just said, ‘well, that’s what it shows so that’s what it is,'” said Montgomery.

NBC 5 Responds heard from more than 50 people in Haltom City whose bills have also skyrocketed.

“Our water bill went from $141 to $332 for two people,” said Mary Hunter.

Bottom line: They do not trust these smart meters. The people we spoke with said there is no way their water usage could increase this much in a year’s time.

“We might as well just move out of Haltom City because we’re not going to be able to afford to live in Haltom City,” Hunter said.

Rex Phelps, Haltom City’s Assistant City Manager, said many residents have been undercharged on their water usage for decades. He said the old meters were simply inaccurate.

“You had a good situation for a long time because you simply weren’t paying all your water usage. And now, you are,” he said.

https://www.nbcdfw.com/news/local/Residents-Voice-Concerns-Over-Outrageous-Water-Bills-In-Haltom-City-490506051.html

HOW HACKED WATER HEATERS COULD TRIGGER MASS BLACKOUTS

HOW HACKED WATER HEATERS COULD TRIGGER MASS BLACKOUTS

GETTY IMAGES

WHEN THE CYBERSECURITY industry warns about the nightmare of hackers causing blackouts, the scenario they describe typically entails an elite team of hackers breaking into the inner sanctum of a power utility to start flipping switches. But one group of researchers has imagined how an entire power grid could be taken down by hacking a less centralized and protected class of targets: home air conditioners and water heaters. Lots of them.

At the Usenix Security conference this week, a group of Princeton University security researchers will present a study that considers a little-examined question in power grid cybersecurity: What if hackers attacked not the supply side of the power grid, but the demand side? In a series of simulations, the researchers imagined what might happen if hackers controlled a botnet composed of thousands of silently hacked consumer internet of things devices, particularly power-hungry ones like air conditioners, water heaters, and space heaters. Then they ran a series of software simulations to see how many of those devices an attacker would need to simultaneously hijack to disrupt the stability of the power grid.

Their answers point to a disturbing, if not quite yet practical scenario: In a power network large enough to serve an area of 38 million people—a population roughly equal to Canada or California—the researchers estimate that just a one percent bump in demand might be enough to take down the majority of the grid. That demand increase could be created by a botnet as small as a few tens of thousands of hacked electric water heaters or a couple hundred thousand air conditioners.

“Power grids are stable as long as supply is equal to demand,” says Saleh Soltan, a researcher in Princeton’s Department of Electrical Engineering, who led the study. “If you have a very large botnet of IoT devices, you can really manipulate the demand, changing it abruptly, any time you want.”

Just a one percent bump in demand might be enough to take down the majority of the grid.

The result of that botnet-induced imbalance, Soltan says, could be cascading blackouts. When demand in one part of the grid rapidly increases, it can overload the current on certain power lines, damaging them or more likely triggering devices called protective relays, which turn off the power when they sense dangerous conditions. Switching off those lines puts more load on the remaining ones, potentially leading to a chain reaction.

“Fewer lines need to carry the same flows and they get overloaded, so then the next one will be disconnected and the next one,” says Soltan. “In the worst case, most or all of them are disconnected, and you have a blackout in most of your grid.”

Power utility engineers, of course, expertly forecast fluctuations in electric demand on a daily basis. They plan for everything from heat waves that predictably cause spikes in air conditioner usage to the moment at the end of British soap opera episodes when hundreds of thousands of viewers all switch on their tea kettles. But the Princeton researchers’ study suggests that hackers could make those demand spikes not only unpredictable, but maliciously timed.

The researchers don’t actually point to any vulnerabilities in specific household devices, or suggest how exactly they might be hacked. Instead, they start from the premise that a large number of those devices could somehow be compromised and silently controlled by a hacker. That’s arguably a realistic assumption, given the myriad vulnerabilities other security researchers and hackers have found in the internet of things. One talk at the Kaspersky Analyst Summit in 2016 described security flaws in air conditioners that could be used to pull off the sort of grid disturbance that the Princeton researchers describe. And real-world malicious hackers have compromised everything from refrigerators to fish tanks.

Letter: So-called smart meters extremely problematic

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Letter: So-called smart meters extremely problematic

People should think about dangers of this technology.

Editor:

The so-called smart meters, which electric utilities are using to replace our old, safe and reliable analog meters, are a bad idea on so many levels. First, they emit radiofrequency radiation, or RFR, which the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified as a carcinogen. The National Toxicology Program has reported clear evidence of RFR as a cancer-causing agent.

Besides recording consumers’ electrical output, they will be used without consent, since they are mandatory in Pennsylvania and there is no ability to opt out as in some other states. There are concerns that the data these devices collect could lead to an intrusion on people’s privacy. The EMF Safety Network reports that smart meters have been linked to fires and explosions.

Furthermore, they are at risk of being hacked. Former CIA director James Woolsey has stated, “A smart grid which can be hacked is not smart, but a really, really stupid grid.” And so it is a national security risk.

Last but not least, smart meters can lead to higher electric bills. Since the smart meter was installed, six of our last seven bills were higher compared with the same time period in the previous year. How is this progress?

And I haven’t even mentioned the 5G wireless data network rollout, which will require cellphone tower equipment on many telephone poles near people’s homes. Think about it.

Hubert Beck
Heidelberg Township

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Tracking the smart meter evolution

Tracking the smart meter evolution

The term ‘smart meter’ has been fluid over time, with a somewhat different meaning in 2018 than in 1998, and potentially something else entirely in 2038. Today, a smart meter is a two-way communicating digital meter, found most prominently in the electricity sector.

By Steve Chakerian, a senior analyst at Northeast Group, US

Smart meters are also used by water and gas utilities, though adoption has been slower in those sectors. Often described as the building blocks of the oftmentioned ‘smart grid’, smart meters are integral to any discussion of smart grid infrastructure. It is important to understand not only the technological functionality of smart meters, but also the evolving framework by which utilities are procuring these systems and how the value of smart meters will be maximised in the coming decades.

This article first appeared in ESI Africa Edition 3, 2018. You can read the full digital magazine here or subscribe here to receive a print copy.

The basics of smart meters

The smart meter itself is part of a broader ‘advanced metering infrastructure’, or ‘AMI’ (the terms AMI and smart meter are often used interchangeably). Internal to the smart meter are its components such as microcontrollers, disconnect switches and network interface cards. The other infrastructure includes components such as the communications network, a meter data management system, and other software and analytics. The smart meters themselves are only one piece of the smart grid puzzle, albeit a very important one.

So, what is the role of meters in all of this? Their primary purpose has remained the same as any energy meter for the past century: to measure energy use. Even if their functionality was limited to this purpose alone, smart meters would still represent a significant improvement over their predecessors, as they provide more accurate readings, allowing more accurate billing at lower costs. This results in a more efficient ‘meter-tocash’ process at utilities.

Other benefits of smart meters with vast potential are the ones created by all of the new data. Older non-communicating legacy meters measure total energy consumption, and only do so at monthly or quarterly intervals. That’s one data point per month or less. AMI meters are capable of measuring consumption, voltage, and other parameters in real-time. That’s a lot of data from which many important patterns and insights can be gathered. Smart meters serve other basic functions too: they are watchdogs for electricity theft. They can also quickly launch notifications when there are power outages (the so called ‘last gasp’ function). They can allow utilities to implement dynamic pricing, time-of-use (TOU) rates, and related demand response programmes. Broadly speaking, they can improve the reliability of electricity services. But like any emergent technology, the rise of smart meters has been accompanied by challenges.

Challenges

Unsurprisingly, smart meters are significantly more expensive than legacy meters, with an all-in cost that can rise above $200 per endpoint in developed countries. This is a significant investment for any utility, and for many can prove to be an unsurmountable obstacle to AMI deployment. Another concern is security, as is to be expected when the accumulation of personal data is at play. A cautious approach to data security has slowed the adoption of smart meters in some major markets, notably Germany.

AMI deployments are also large and complex undertakings, often taking years to plan and carry out. Of course, the pre-eminent challenge remains cost, and the required investment must be justified by the expected returns. A key challenge for smart meters today is that the real-time data is not being fully leveraged for maximum benefits. As illustrated in the graph (see opposite page), a utility that uses smart meters for its basic function will see some benefit, but there is immense potential left on the table. In the US for instance, only about 10% of utility customers with AMI meters are utilising dynamic rates. Beyond this, utilities must make further investments for complex data analysis in order to realise benefits from the original investment. Unfortunately, it costs money to save money, and many utilities are not in a position to spend after having just made a large investment in smart meters in the first place. A new trend known as ‘managed services’ is beginning to change this.

Managed services: Changing the game

Managed services represent the outsourcing of physical and operational aspects of a smart meter system to third parties, usually specialised smart grid vendors. At the most basic level, managed services can be software-as-a-service, in which software applications that support AMI are cloudhosted on a subscription-basis, not unlike cloud software in any other enterprise. In more comprehensive service agreements, operational responsibility for the AMI system is also entrusted to a third-party in what is often called smart-metering-as-a-service. At the end of the spectrum, full managed services (often called Infrastructure-as-aservice) delivers the entire AMI system as a service, in which physical infrastructure is owned by third-parties and leased to the utility, while all IT needs are cloud-hosted rather than installed on-site.

Why would a utility opt for service-based smart metering? Because it addresses many of the AMI challenges described above. Entrusting data to a sophisticated third-party usually provides more security than can be accomplished by the utility alone where cybersecurity skillsets may be underdeveloped. Deployment time can be cut in half when IT infrastructure is hosted in the cloud, while in-house staff do not need to be trained to operate the complex new systems. Perhaps most importantly, managed services can help mitigate the significant upfront costs of smart metering systems. Service-based offerings convert costs from an upfront capital investment to a recurring operational expense. This opens the door for utilities that cannot make such a large initial investment. These utilities, usually smaller in size, do not have the benefit of economies of scale. In essence, they are borrowing economies of scale from vendors.

However, there is an inherent obstacle to this new opportunity: most utilities are still regulated under the traditional cost-of-service model in which SaaS and other service-based investments are still treated as O&M and not capital investments. There is a disincentive against those service-based products that remove the need to invest in sometimes inefficient and outdated capital equipment. To give managed services a fair chance, regulations must evolve. Regulators in some US states such as New York and Illinois are taking the lead in this regard, and the lessons are sinking in slowly in other regulatory jurisdictions.

Managed services give a glimpse into where the industry is headed, how those utilities that have yet to deploy smart meters can do so, and how those that have completed smart meter deployments can extract greater value from them. It will also be an economic opportunity as the service-based model, which creates affordability and flexibility for customers, provides recurring revenue for vendors. Several major metering vendors are pivoting to a services-oriented business model in which smart meters are one feature of a larger, services-based package. These packages are often designed around promised results backed by service level agreements.

The arc of technological growth in smart meters is beginning to level out, and the major innovations are now taking place in models of smart meter use, delivery, and ownership. The emergence of managed services has opened the door to new potential customers and new possibilities for existing customers. Only a small share of smart meters are currently under these service contracts, but that figure is expected to increase over the next several years. Thanks to these innovative business models, the full value of smart meters – made possible by decades of technological advances – will be achieved on a wider scale. In addition to improving utility customer satisfaction, this will create significant gains in energy efficiency and reliability, which has been the essential promise of the smart grid all along. ESI

 

https://www.esi-africa.com/tracking-the-smart-meter-evolution-2/

FCC prepares the way the nationwide coming roll out of 5G: Bans the right of local government and communities to call for moratoriums

FCC prepares the way the nationwide coming roll out of 5G: Bans the right of local government and communities to call for moratoriums

An industry telecommunications publication states that the nationwide roll-out of 5G antennas (macro and micro) in America will require about 5 times the number of antennas currently erected . Already communities are protesting over a massive increase in these towers. It is obvious that with such an increase in large and small cell antennas, community and local government calls for moratoriums will only increase. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), predictably running interference for the telco industry, has now banned moratoriums in relation to telecommunications equipment but local governments can appeal by October 2. From BBK Attorneys at Law: FCC Bans Moratoria on Communications Facilities Deployment….Read on…..
Read on »

http://www.emfacts.com

Leszczynski: key-note lecture on ‘5G & Health’ at the 2018 Korean EMF Workshop

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  • 10 AUG 18

Leszczynski: key-note lecture on ‘5G & Health’ at the 2018 Korean EMF Workshop

From Dariusz Leszczyski

August 10, 2018

At the invitation from Professor Nam Kim and Professor Jin-Kyu Byun, on 29th and 30th of August 2018, Dariusz Leszczynski will be speaking in Seoul, South Korea.

On August 29th, a 3-hour seminar for the Korean EMF scientists to discuss the research gaps and research needs in the EMF and health.

On August 30th, invited opening key-note lecture at the 22nd Workshop on the Bio-Effects and Environment of EMF. The title of the presentation: “Possible health effects associated with the deployment of the 5G“.

The Workshop is hosted by the Ministry of Science and ICT and co-hosted by the Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science (KIEES) Technical Group on EMF and Biology.

Slides of both presentations will be made available on BRHP right afterwards…..

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