Smart meter radiation and health – why are we neglecting non-toxic alternatives?

Smart meter radiation and health – why are we neglecting non-toxic alternatives?

Lynne Wycherley

6th June 2017

With growing evidence of harm to physical and mental health caused by continuous pulsed em radiation from ‘smart’ electricity meters, Lynne Wycherley asks: have we underestimated risks to heart function and the nervous system? And of interference with embedded medical devices, such as cardiac pacemakers? It’s time to switch to over-wire or fibre communications to bring the ‘smart green grid’ of the future to electrosmog-free reality.

What struck me most was the common time-line: normal people, strange new symptoms, who only later discovered that a smart meter had been installed at the time or just before their symptoms initiated.

It is striking that the American Academy of Environmental Medicine (AAEM) called for a moratorium on smart meters (2012) and continues to veto them today.

Based on their literature reviews and clinical experience, they advised no smart meters should be located in or next to the homes of those with cardiac or neurological conditions, including Parkinson’s or dementia; or electrosensitivity; or cancer.

Their board wrote to California’s Public Utilities Commission: “guidelines for RF exposure used to justify installation of ‘smart meters’ are based only on thermal effects and are obsolete” – guidelines now under heavy fire from the 224-scientist appeal to the UN (see Part 1).

The AAEM continues: “Wireless RF radiation … effects accumulate over time which is an important consideration given the chronic nature of exposure to ‘smart meters’. The current medical literature raises credible questions about genetic and cellular effects, hormonal effects … blood / brain barrier damage, and increased risks of certain types of cancers from RF and ELF levels similar to those emitted by ‘smart meters’. Children are placed at particular risk.”

Footage has been published of smart meter transmissions disrupting the human heartbeat. Blind electrocardiogram field tests (16 May 2017), verified by Dr Gilberto Leon MD, an American GP, reveal smart meter heartbeat disruption in an apparently healthy adult male.

Repeated disruption was found at 1m from a smart meter in blind tests on a healthy adult male. Dr Leon warned this effect “silently makes our hearts work too hard“, a chronic stress.  He had to halt a later blind test (1.5m) on a woman due to the meter’s apparent, rapid impact. If such risks are confirmed by double-blind studies (if funded), or found at greater distances, should smart-meters be re-sited or withdrawn?

Electro-siege … RF-sensitive medical implants

Pacemakers, insulin pumps, deep-brain stimulators, cochlear implants, internal defibrillators (ICDs), spinal stimulators and other RF-sensitive implants are in growing use worldwide. Many of us have loved ones with such implants, and may face personal use in later life.

Geophysics professor Gary Olhoeft has a Parkinson’s deep-brain-stimulator that can be affected unpredictably around wireless technologies, even shutting off. He has given talkson the EMF cacophony we are creating – and its breathtaking short-sightedness.

During one such talk, everyone present indicated that their own medical implants had been disturbed by EMFs in the environment. On the lack of research into such interactions, he says “you have to ask: why is so little known about something that has the potential to injure or kill so many … ?”

Internationally, there has been no post-rollout monitoring of possible smart-meter / medical implant interactions, despite the meters’ 24:7 piercing microwave pulses, mixed modalities, and situations – such tiny shop units (UK) – which create sustained close exposure. Despite the new EU law on occupational EMFs.

Louis Donovan (California) testifies to four hospitalisations from pacemaker shut-downs, plus EMI that continually overrode his pacemaker, that coincided with smart-metering and ceased only on meter removal many months later. Baffled surgeons found no fault with his mint-condition device. Jerry Kozak (Canada) had chronic palpitations that overrode his pacemaker, relieved only by blocking his smart-meter. Though circumstantial, such testimonies suggest a need for vigilance.

In 2015, engineer Jeff Silverberg at the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (USA) reported that “EMC information in regulation is often incomplete and has errors.” Noting that, numerically, medical implant interference problems may far exceed those reported to his unit, he flagged growing risks from the “proliferation of RF wireless technology”.

Under stress? The ‘white tree’ of our nervous systems

Published non-ionising risks to our nervous systems, long noted by military sources, continue to grow. Harvard neurology professor Martha Herbert co-authored a paper with 560 references on a plausible link between EMFs and autism (Pathophysiology 2013). “The nervous system is an electrical organ”, observes former bioengineering professor Henry Lai, who surveys neuroactive findings to 2007 and 2007 to 2014, cautioning that few address our long-term exposure.

As noted, biochemist Professor Martin Pall demonstrates that ion-channels (VCCGs) in our cells can be over-stimulated by pulsed RF (and by strong AC electric fields) with oxidative/ genotoxic “downstream effects” (see Part 1). “It is time for a paradigm shift … current safety standards are based on quicksand.” He highlighted smart-meter pulse intensity. In his new paper 2016, he notes “VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system.”

Reviewing research that, in his analysis, meets “five criteria for causality”, he observes that neural symptoms reported in smart meter and cell-tower epidemiology are consistent with substantial Soviet research, including Lerner 1980: “1300 [pulsed] microwave workers … with relatively low exposure levels had an approximate doubling of neurological complaints … over controls.”

Could we revisit the Precautionary Principle? Gareth Shane, Maryland, testifies to sudden deterioration in his multiple sclerosis when a smart-meter was installed on his home without his knowledge, with rapid reversal after its removal, a testimony backed by his doctor. The global absence of health screening to test whether such experiences exceed coincidence is troubling.

Needles in the night: smart meters by bedrooms

Addressing a smart grid conference, Dr Karl Maret, a US physician and engineer, advised “don’t have your kids or elderly or sick people sleep on the other side of a wall where the smart meter is” He points out whole-body exposure is involuntary, at times considerable (his measurements: 1, 2,) with pulse intensity disguised by time-averaged data. Preliminary microscopy (Springob 2013; video) suggested near-field risks to blood cells; however, this needs scaled-up replication.

Though models vary, the reality may be less cosy than adverts suggest. In Britain, modest cellular uploads (WAN) coexist, as elsewhere, with house-piercing pulses (HAN). Measurements by Dr Liz Evans GP and others unveil the high-intensity microwave spikes firing off every 2 seconds (video).

When the UK government dismissed wired smart-meter options – used extensively in mainland Europe – Dr Evans set up a pressure group, ‘Stop Smart Meters UK’. “Ours is very much an environmental message”, explains co-founder Mike Mitcham, an IT consultant. They hope that by airing unresolved health, privacy and security issues, plus malfunctions and the eye-watering expense, bio-friendly Green alternatives will emerge.

But while wireless smart-meter modalities and outputs vary, close overnight exposure looks increasingly unwise. [See this typical US testimony at 22:10]. Pulsed RF has been shown repeatedly to raise oxidative stress, even at relatively low levels [re: Zigbee]: a chronic disease risk factor.

Insomnia is a keynote in US court cases on smart meters, plus emerging epidemiology from other countries (see Notes). Norwegian paediatrician Dr Toril Jelter has compiled childhood insomnia cases resolved by removing wireless transmitters – including smart meters.

Dr Lamech 2014 (see Part 1) found insomnia topped her peer-reviewed, smart meter case histories: patients ended up “relocating their bedrooms, moving to another residence … or moving out of the state” while headaches / dizziness etc. linked to exposure at work, it seems, forced some to lose their jobs.

Collating 210 health testimonies in Maine, USA, biochemist Dr Richard Conrad commented “what struck me most was the common time-line: normal people, strange new symptoms, who only later discovered that a smart meter had been installed … Upon inquiry, they found out it had been installed at the time or just before their symptoms initiated.”(2013)

Animal studies, whatever our misgivings about them, are less vulnerable to attribution errors, or failures to connect real-life exposure with possible effects. While results have varied, in some studies low level pulsed RF was found to alter small mammals’ sleep cycles or to interfere with GABA (e.g. 3, 4,) the calming neurotransmitter. (Or melatonin 5,).

Short term human trails on pulsed RF and sleep, often on fit young men, have had mild, mixed results. Poor sleepers (and ‘electrosensitives’ 6, 7,) may be at raised risk (8, 9,). RF susceptibility was first observed in 1932 .

Swept off-stage – cancer data and environmental pulsed RF

In 2013 a group of six medical doctors from Oregon sent evidence to the Federal Communications Commission suggesting community health risks from smart meter rollouts. Led by Dr Paul Dart, their referenced 18-month review of 289 bio-medical studies brings to light some valuable cautioning evidence on chronic pulsed RF exposure, air-brushed from public reviews.

Referencing the late Professor Neil Cherry, this includes a helpful, visual summary of longitudinal cancer studies for radar workers, radio hams, and residents exposed to cell towers (phone masts). Such as Dode 2011, a high-quality paper in Science of the Total Environment, which found a spatial / dose relationship and short latency. (See also Yakymenko 2011 review).

What might be the chronic effects, perhaps, of additional, all-hour exposures? [Re: Professor Karl Hecht’s suppressed work]. Such as penetrating smart meter pulses – often over 40,000 per day (British Gas) – on top of other EMFs? Notice, for example, animal studies of near-field WiFi toxicity [ 10, 11, 12, 13] and brain protein mayhem from in-situ cordless phone transmitters (DECT). Plus risks to melatonin from certain magnetic fields [+ here].

The doctors noted smart metering is “a community issue not just an individual issue”because of interpenetrating exposures. With additive smog from RF ‘smart’ appliances. They called for protection of “vulnerable groups in the population including children”, anticipating the International EMF scientist Appeal (see Part 1). And advised local suppliers to “adopt a policy of minimising its RF footprint in the community”: a timely concept.

Fibre optics: the elegance of light

Could we adapt existing smart meters, perhaps, to function without house-piercing microwaves?

So-called ‘opt-out’ meters in Michigan still emitted all-hour microwave pulses (HAN) – only the uploads to the power company had been disabled (WAN) – helping to explain, perhaps, why unaware symptomatic residents testified to little relief (see also Milham below).

Wired smart meter rollouts have mostly used RF overlying electric wiring (‘powerline carrier’ or ‘broadband over powerline’), common in Europe and Scandinavia. However, this often generates strong EMI (electromagnetic interference), raising medical implant issues, and is contraindicated for electrosensitives, many of whom have testified to chronic problems (e.g. 14, 15,).

Before the UK rollout, engineer Alasdair Phillips (known to Greens for his work with Greenham Common protesters and Dr Chris Busby) flagged options for wired rollouts in preference to “yet another microwave source inside our homes.” And noted big wireless lobbyists in the wings.

“Wireless transmissions … should be able to be disabled and wired smart interfaces be built in as standard”, observes Dr Isaac Jamieson, biosustainability consultant, in his paper Smart Meters, Smarter Practices, best read in full [here / here].

Discussing Chatanooga’s highly successful fibre-optic smart grid, he explains fibre optics are more “future proof” than wireless. High in data-capacity, they reduce EMF stresses on people (pp77-123) and habitats (pp137-142). And slash the hacking perils that led Britain’s GCHQ to wave a red flag and former CIA chief James Woolsey to censure wireless smartgrids. A new poll reports 51% of UK firms fear linked cybersecurity risks.

New start-ups by UK farmers, in which communities lay down their own fibre-optics, show initial costs can be kept low. The fibres can last 50 years, a contrast to the rapid obsolescence of some wireless approaches. FirstEnergy’s chief of information predicted wireless meter turnovers of “5 to 7 years” while analyst Nick Hunn warns UK smart meters will soon become “stranded assets”.

Dr Sam Milham testifies to smart meter risks

Life’s sensitivity to EMFs continues to surprise. In January, New Scientist reported how delicate bioelectricity directs growth, from cell structure upwards. In February, Science Daily aired how DNA relays faint electrical signals. Professor Martin Blank has unveiled DNA’s frequency-sensitive structure, and Professor Frank Barnes radical-pair spin effects. In all, it would be astonishing if our rising, penetrating EMFs – pulsed-microwave, kilohertz, AC and magnetic – were not placing stresses on our biology.

Professor Magda Havas posits risks to diabetics from DE (dirty electricity), the higher frequency transients/ harmonics from switched-mode power that overlay wiring and its EM fields. “By closely following plasma glucose levels in four Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics, we find that they responded directly to the amount of DE in their environment. In an electromagnetically clean environment, Type 1 diabetics require less insulin and Type 2 diabetics have lower levels of plasma glucose.”

Epidemiologist Dr Sam Milham has published pioneering papers on the possible impacts of DE on human biology. Though more data and high-quality follow-ups are certainly needed, his thoughtful investigations and case studies raise valid questions about possible disease risks from exposure.

In April, Milham filed a testimony in an Arizona court case contesting smart meters. “Because it is at the front end of a building’s wiring, the dirty electricity from the smart meter’s SMPS [switched-mode power] has a gateway into that building’s wiring … The house wiring acts as an antenna [radiating] 6 to 8 feet from the house wiring or extension cords”

He suggests that the many, published neurotoxic effects in DE frequency ranges found on house wiring might be a putative stressor. Engineer Lloyd Morgan has also tested DE and child asthma.

If DE is indeed subtly bioactive, and oscilloscopes confirm rises, then (as with smart meter microwave pulses) the inverse square law is of limited help in cramped conditions. Novel filtering may be a way forward.

Vive la Résistance?’ Civil unrest in France

In France, smart meter health and privacy issues have hit home. Many householders have testified to harm from “Linky” powerline-carrier meters (examples) and 16 mayors and 300 councils – their numbers rising – have taken a stand. Their letter to President Hollande 2017 called for recognition of problems, an end to customer intimidation, and restitution of basic human rights.

Marc Khanne is the award-winning director of Desperately Seeking White Zone, the beautifully filmed documentary about people exiled by electrosensitivity (see Part 1 latest evidence: Belpomme) including former telecoms / IT workers.

He told me of a gentle husband and wife living in Ariège who were unconcerned about smart meters. On installation, they suffered sleep starvation, headaches, nausea, memory failure and other harsh problems. An electrician eventually uncovered excessive DE from their smart-meter installation. The couple testify to being left in reduced health, with impaired physical tolerance to EMFs.

The Precautionary Principle – curbing involuntary exposure

Though smart meter EMF output varies, why ramp up household EMFs at all, given the mounting precautionary science (161718) when cleaner ways forward are perceptible? A fully Green solution would address carbon and EMF medical risks jointly. As in the BauBio eco-movement.

Micheal Bevington’s scholarly Electromagnetic Sensitivity carries nearly 2,000 citations revealing ‘non-thermal’ EMFs are bioactive. Should we assent to a dying paradigm – denial of all such effects to permit a corporate free-for-all – when we could be aiding wise reform? (And exposing regulator scandals, here). See the new Green-led French law on EMF ‘sobriety’.

Voluntary EM exposure is still rising, with all the nitrosative, genotoxic, and other peer-reviewed risks (such as to the blood-brain barrier) this can bring. But as awareness of precautionary science grows, despite ‘product defence’ strategies, calls for cleaner buildings may rise: a new ‘organic’.

But if EMFs escalate from old-style smart metering plus hyper-profit corporate 5G / IoT – casting caution to the wind – then ramped up involuntary exposure could harm birthright to health. A theme explored internationally by Dr Isaac Jamieson (pp 41-76). Even noting Article 2 ‘right to life’ (UK) reflecting the rising data on foetal / infertility risks (pp 107-110).

So might smart meters have been oversold? Some studies suggest linked ‘in home displays’ soon lose their novelty. (Ovo found that 61% had been switched off!) And that when compliance while under study is removed, energy savings can shrivel, a poor trade-off for permanent electrosmog.

Meanwhile, ‘nudge’ techniques and education – such as energy costs of standby – may yield change more cost-effectively, as noted by energy professor Stephen Thomas, Greenwich. Grid issues aside, plug-in energy monitors cost only £15!

Are there safer routes to grid reform?

Distinguished communications engineer Dr Timothy Schoeshle, Colorado University, has served on many international, technical, standard-setting bodies for data technologies. Co-pioneer of many techologies, such as barcodes, home networks and Voice over Internet Protocol, plus founder of PhD programmes, he has had key standard-setting roles in home automation and grid topology.

His penetrating white paper Getting Smarter About the Smart-grid (Nov 2012) opens up technical possibilities for smart-grids with fewer attendant health / habitat / security risks than the wireless grids being widely pursued. Above all, he repeatedly exposes what he sees as “hype” surrounding smart-meters.

Their mountains of in-home personal data, he maintains, are ultimately “not necessary to the basic purpose of the smart-grid: supply/demand balancing, demand response (DR), dynamic pricing, renewable integration, or local generation and storage – as promoters of the meters and uninformed parties routinely claim.”

He clarifies repeatedly how smart-metering has been conflated with grid modernisation, a confusion infecting governments and “non-engineers”, including academics, to the visible neglect of distributive, cost-effective, less toxic alternatives. So breeding “third party jackals” to profit from the meters’ endless, granular data: a corporate gangway into homes worldwide.

How does he view smart-meter rollouts and IoT today, I wondered, and claims made for them? Does he perceive any new ways forward? André Fauteux, editor of La Maison du 21e siècle (journal for healthy sustainable buildings), relayed my enquiry to him at his Colorado home, adding further questions.

Asked about smart meter energy-efficiency claims, Dr Schoechle opined “No … It’s a big myth. Smart meters are not useful for much but they allow utilities to cut costs … They don’t help manage energy problems. The flow of information is in the wrong direction … the house needs to know the condition of supply and demand on the grid to use it wisely.”

Could fibre-optic grids be the future? “Yes. I’m writing a paper called ‘Reinventing wires: the future of landlines and networks’ on the economic and social benefits of high-speed fiber public networks. We don’t need all these 5G networks, they are much more expensive than fiber. And that’s why utilities and the telecom industry want to build them: to make a profit.

“They have to do this every 10 to 20 years, reinvent new generations of technology to be successful, otherwise they go out of business. It’s planned obsolescence … I recommend deploying local fiber-optic networks everywhere … The original idea of the smart grid was to use information to better control the generation, transmission and distribution of power. This is still a good idea and fiber is best.”

And what of IoT? “The IoT is all about selling more chips and software to make everything dependent on network services, but we don’t need to do that. We can benefit from home automation if it’s used to manage energy within a home or building or local neighborhood grid, called ‘micro-grids’ …

“I’m working on standardization of communication technologies for residential gateways dedicated to assuring premises security and safety (fire, physical, health) and they will benefit privacy too. Home automation [has] new opportunities to reduce wireless, which suffers from severe security, safety and privacy flaws.”

Skylights – promising ways forward

As Greens, always alert for opportunities to clean up rather than pollute, can we support any other low-EMF solutions? An eco start-up called ‘Transverter’, for example, tackles energy quality and efficiency all in one.

In his paper ‘The extreme effects of computer and CFL power supplies on the grid‘, founder Heart Akerman analyses how lack of power correction in countless commercial devices wastes energy and can produce needlessly turbid electromagnetic fields – the opposite of electromagnetic hygiene.

Passionate about energy efficiency, plus health, he and his team have pioneered technologies that restore pure sine waves. Alongside low power, bio-friendly DC lighting.

The University of Edinburgh is looking at affordable photo-receptors and LEDs that could create IoT systems from data-rich light (LiFi) rather than bioactive pulsed RF. Pending LiFi optical safety testing, such strides, I perceive, could be adapted for localised, low-EMF systems.

Dr Timothy Schoeshle has further transformative suggestions. The new high-capacity Power-over-Ethernet (POE) could support, for example, secure home automation / broadband, DC distribution

(AC is more bioactive) and could “power just about anything”. Whilst fibre microgrids could bring energy management/storage close to grassroot, renewable sources while reducing toxic EMFs, security risks, and long-distance inefficiencies. As well as excessive Big Data – superbly reframed by Vandana Shiva (addressing Resurgence & Ecologist,Oxford 2016) as “data obesity”!

The hidden carbon costs of storing endless, granular, smart meter data, meanwhile, may have barely begun. A Gartner report showed the annual electricity bill for running a 750 square metre data centre, cooling included, can exceed $1.5 million. Whilst The Independent reported that world data-storage centres (for all-source data) accounted for 3% of global energy consumption in 2015.

In summary, we do not have to choose between cutting carbon and curbing bioactive EMFs. With vision and enterprise, they can go hand in hand. Producing a potential quantum leap in eco-thinking, with exciting possibilities.

Any ‘third industrial revolution’, a term coined by Professor Jeremy Rifkin, will be biosustainable only if we bring the growing wealth of precautionary EMF science, military included, into our awareness and energy use. An inconvenient – and inspiring – truth.



Lynne Wycherley is a nature poet with six published collections. Working in parallel with pioneering doctors, she has been investigating non-ionizing radiation for 5 years.

Also on The Ecologist: ‘Smart meters and cell damage from pulsed em radiation – our health at risk?‘ by Lynne Wycherley.


Cardiac tests: Galvanic skin-shock reactions were also discovered (personal communication). Pulsed RF heartbeat disruption has also been found in foetuses stressed by cell-phones and in some patients blindly exposed to cordless-phone transmitters.

Medical implants: See also Katie Singer’s Electronic Silent Spring, highly recommended, in which Professor Olhoeft is a guest voice and advisor. Research on EMI from RFID readers (e.g. van der Togt 2008/Siedman 2009), meanwhile, may have subtle implications for the RFID explosion from IoT. A paper for the EU also exposed EMF risks to patients with metal implants (2015).

Neurotoxicity: Findings continue to grow, e.g. Othman 2017, rodents prenatally exposed to near-field WiFi 2h/day had “impaired … neurodevelopment” (re: high SARS WiFi tablets). On near-field smart meter “bursts”, perhaps notice Zhang 2008 [gene expression] found more neural effects from intermittent pulse-modulated microwaves than unbroken and Diem 2005 more DNA breaks (3G).

Professor Martha Herbert, reflecting on her work: “The more sensitive our scientific measurement instruments become, the more we learn that every cell in our body uses electromagnetic signalling”

Output: Pulse intensity V/m (plus frequency/duty cycle) may be more significant, biologically, than other smart meter metrics, re: Prof Pall. Dr Mallery-Blythe notes low-intensity “window effects” also need to be considered, plus non-linear biological responses/ concurrent RF exposures.

Dr Liz Evans GP testified to MPs, opposing smart meters. In subsequent written evidence she states “I am a qualified doctor and the mother of four young children and there is no way that I will ever agree to have a wireless Smart Meter … There is no mention in any of the literature from the DECC of the proven safe distance from one or more wireless ‘Smart’ Meters for humans and animals, or the duration of safe long-term exposure in hours per day. There is also no mention of proven safe exposure levels for pregnant women and children or the impact of multiple Smart Meters on RF safety levels in apartments/ terraced housing etc.”

Privacy violations: A global human rights concern. The close up, granular data can reveal a child home alone, for example, and other sensitive information (e.g. Samsung’s ‘smart’ TV fine print warned conversations could reach 3rd parties) while feeding highly intrusive marketing.

Sleep impairment: e.g. In desperation, Liz Barris (USA) slept in her car for 7 months until her smart meter was removed, a pattern across other states. The Trudeaus (Melbourne) did so for a year; Leo Weiser (Canada) for three. Dr Rubik, MD, had patients living in tents. An Okehampton family, UK (personal communication) report chronic insomnia etc., children included, since installation.

And so on … Discomfort may play a role: Dr Diane Culik MD, Oakland, linked her nightly arrhythmia to her nearby meter. Sleep assays, sensitive to individual variability, await independent funding.

Dr Paul Dart & colleagues One took the trouble to visit the Parisian researchers who are revolutionising our understanding of electrosensitivity. (More proactive than government health officials, it seems!) Notice their section on metering options pp69-74. Current ‘smart’ appliances transmit continual WiFi-like pulses with no “off” option, raising passive exposure.

Why opt-outs are inadequate: If you are boxed in by neighbours’ meters, in poor health, and cannot afford to move, opt-outs offer little EMF protection or health choice. As Greens committed to social justice, how can we protect the disadvantaged? Can we call for equitable, electro-clean alternatives? See end for a relevant case history.

Fibre-optic grids: Low-EMF benefits could be undermined if councils permit intensive use of add-on FTTC (fibre to the cell) including controversial, high-density microwave/ MMwave 5G rollouts

Protecting habitats Frank Clegg, former CEO of Microsoft Canada, perceives that “blanket radiation” from wireless-mesh smartgrids adds a further RF stress to habitats. See, eg., pollinators nesting above ground/ sparrow loss. Citizen reports may offer possible clues. Beekeeper Dr Marianna Hartsong (USA), for example, testifies to dramatic bee hostility coinciding with local switch on; within 8 days, with no known chemical involvement, two thirds of her bees were dead. If a degree of bee / nesting disturbance is a recurring feature, over time, could we be overlooking hotspots or subtle eco-effects? Notice this paper on polarization.

‘Dirty Electricity’: Milham 2008 “A cohort cancer incidence analysis of the teacher population showed a positive trend (P = 7.1 x 10 (-10)) of increasing cancer risk with increasing cumulative exposure to high frequency voltage transients on the classroom’s electrical wiring.”

Diabetes: Among similar cases, a diabetic boy’s 2-year stable blood-sugar (6.8) rose to 9.5 while a smart-meter was active near his bed, resolving only after removal (Michigan). If common, such clues may prove helpful if replicable after excluding confounding factors / stressors.

DE from Solar Power Inverters is an area where we could make rapid progress – if we disseminate information. In tests (e.g. as here, by safe technology advocate Jeromy Johnson) solar inverters tend to generate high, systemic, DE. And await filtering technologies to restore EM hygiene.

French Testimonies For example: 1) Hélene Stephane is trying to raise awareness of the plight of her aging parents, struck down with worsening symptoms since installation, and forced to sleep in the woods. 2) Thérèse, Brittany, testifies [video in French] that she and her husband fell ill on installation with no knowledge that smart meters could have any electromagnetic issues. Her sleep starvation, headaches, tachycardia, chest constriction, skin rashes etc. are relieved only by keeping their electricity switched off. But despite certified support from three doctors, their supplier refuses to remove their Linky smart meter.

Precautionary Principle: EMF biologist Dr Andrew Goldsworthy (ret.), Imperial College UK:

“DECC is not giving the public the necessary information to enable it to decide on the safety of [pulsed RF] smart meters, particularly their likely affects on cancer and other health concerns. Either it does not know about them or it has been badly misinformed.”

Professor Olle Johansson, Karolinksa Institute, addressing Krakow“If we make environments safer for those with EMF exposure symptoms, everyone’s disease-risk profile may benefit.”

Regulator Scandals e.g. AGNIR / Public Health England burying RF risks: “Public health … cannot be protected when evidence of harm, no matter how inconvenient, is covered up.” (Dr Starkey 2016.)

Smart meters oversold? See also K T Weaver’s thoughtful research, here / here, at ‘smart grid awareness’ org, which may help to balance over-optimism. Depending on load balance, savings may be meagre without time of use tariffs, vetoed as hazardous by the UK’s chief fire officers.

Grid modernisation After a 6 month engineering review, Northeast Utilities USA concluded mass smart-metering diverted funds from overdue grid modernisations that could improve energy efficiency. Have any suppliers buried engineering reservations, perhaps, to cash in on subsidies?

‘Reinventing wires’ is being published by the National Institute for Science, Law & Public Policy.

An English case history: (see Part 1 for others) Sam, Gloucestershire, kindly shared her experience. It seems her health suffered from high EMF exposure during sustained work in an electronic financial-futures exchange. She also lived by a TETRA mast (see The Ecologist 2004). She had never heard of ‘electrosensitivity’ but her disabling symptoms from EMFs, carefully screened for other causes, were eventually verified by medical specialists. She had to give up work.

As a single mother with two schoolchildren on a very low income, she has few housing options. Struggling to maintain her health in lodgings near augmented phone masts (pulsed microwaves), she applied to a housing association for less polluted accommodation. The association offered her a place in a small, new, three-unit terrace and agreed to waive all smart meters.

But on arrival (2017) she was stricken with aggressive symptoms, amongst the worst she had experienced. It transpired the private contractors had fitted 9 wireless smart meters (gas, electricity, water). After 2 weeks she could barely speak, walk, think, or see properly; her nervous system felt on fire; her sleep was ash. One of her daughters had persistent headaches, anomia, and confusion, all new.

Camping with her children on a friend’s floor, Sam regained her speech and motor functions after four days. But she knew that if she relinquished her home within a year, she would lose all right to reapply for housing. (Outside Sweden, relevant human rights are gravely lacking).

With difficulty, she negotiated removal of her smart-meters. Her neighbours’ meters remain; the 135 meters on the rest of new estate afford no escape. She continues to suffer, struggling to function in her electro-polluted home; she is worried about her children’s health.


FCC Approves OneWeb Broadband Satellite Constellation

News Feature | June 27, 2017

FCC Approves OneWeb Broadband Satellite Constellation

By Jof Enriquez
Follow me on Twitter @jofenriq


Image courtesy of OneWeb

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has granted the request of OneWeb to launch and operate its proposed constellation of 720 satellites to cover the United States market.

Calling it the first-of-its-kind, new generation of large, non-geostationary-satellite orbit, fixed-satellite service (NGSO FSS) systems, FCC said in its declaratory ruling that OneWeb’s network of satellites will “provide high-speed, affordable broadband connectivity to anyone, anywhere” in the United States.

Prior to launching satellites, FCC ordered OneWeb to secure from the United Kingdom Space Agency an authorization for deployment and space operations in the 10.7-12.7 GHz, 14-14.5 GHz, 17.8-18.6 GHz, 18.8-19.3 GHz, 27.5-29.1 GHz, and 29.5-30 GHz frequency bands, among other requirements.

OneWeb is planning to launch 720 satellites into low earth orbit, at an altitude of approximately 1,200 kilometers, beginning in 2018, with a full launch by 2019. The company has set ambitious goals of “connecting every unconnected school” by 2022, and “bridging the digital divide” by 2027, according to The Verge.

Currently available satellite internet service is slow, expensive, and largely out-of-reach for individual consumers, who can be charged up to $200 a day, noted The Washington Post. Low-earth orbit satellites closer to earth promise smoother and faster internet service.

“The goal of this non-geostationary satellite orbit (NGSO) technology is to provide global, high-speed broadband service — and its use case is particularly compelling in remote and hard-to-serve areas,” said FCC Chairman Ajit Pai in a statement.

OneWeb is competing with SpaceX, which is planning to launch a 4,425-strong ‘constellation’ of its own, as well as several other companies planning satellite-based, gigabit-speed broadband and communication services globally. OneWeb was the first to apply to the FCC for its satellite network’s approval on April 28, 2016. Noting that other companies filed their own requests shortly thereafter, Pai said the granting of OneWeb’s petition is the first of many.

“This Order lays the foundation for deployment of future low-Earth orbit satellites while establishing carefully measured standards to ensure that these NGSO constellations will not interfere with their terrestrial or geostationary counterparts. And the Order provides that OneWeb will need to accommodate in-line interference avoidance and spectrum sharing with other NGSOs in the future,” said Pai.

Other conditions specified by FCC for OneWeb to meet include protecting geostationary-satellite orbit (GSO) operations by meeting equivalent power-flux density limits, protecting terrestrial operations by meeting power-flux density (PFD) limits, and certain restrictions to avoid conflict with operators of the Upper Microwave Flexible Use Service (UMFUS) and the 17.8-18.6 GHz Frequency Band.

Pai said FCC also has an ongoing rulemaking proceeding that seeks to update the Commission’s current NGSO Fixed Satellite Service rules to better accommodate this type of satellite system.

Ex-tech pleads guilty to smart meter network attack


Some beers, anger at former employer, and root access add up to a year in prison

Ex-tech pleads guilty to smart meter network attack; changed a password to “f***you.”

Millions of homeowners reject smart meters over hacking fear

Millions of homeowners reject smart meters over hacking fear

June 26 2017, 12:01am, The Times

The government has promised that smart meters will cut energy bills
The government has promised that smart meters will cut energy billsGETTY IMAGES

Concerns over cybersecurity are undermining the nationwide introduction of smart meters, with more than one in five people saying they do not want one.

Almost six million homes would reject the devices despite government promises that they would cut energy bills, according to a survey of attitudes to Britain’s biggest infrastructure project in a generation. More than half of those who oppose smart meters said that their principal concern was data protection.

The government has promised that every home in Britain would be offered a smart meter by 2020. The devices are connected to the internet and track energy usage in real time, allowing customers to better understand their consumption patterns. They would eventually cut the time it takes to switch supplier from six weeks…

What Does Your Smart Meter Know About You?

What Does Your Smart Meter Know About You?

a smart meter
Photo: iStockphoto

An ordinary smart meter gives your local utility useful information about how much energy you are using—every hour, or even as often as every minute. This helps utility planners efficiently adjust electricity generation to meet demand or encourage reductions in demand when necessary.

But machine learning systems, looking at that data, can tell something else about your home besides its energy use—they can tell if you are home, or if you are not. That’s what University of California at Berkeley researchers Ming Jin, Ruoxi Jia, and Costas Spanos found out. That information, Jin says, is also useful for utilities—they can call or show up to perform necessary maintenance when you are home, and not waste personnel time trying to reach you.

SEE ALSO: Want to Know What's Happening in a Building? Listen in at the Breaker Box

But they aren’t the only ones who can access this information, given the data is transmitted wirelessly, and isn’t necessarily encrypted at every stage of its journey.

“If you know a person is home, as an advertiser, you can make a phone call. If you know a person isn’t home, that information could be used for home intrusion or other bad activities,” Jin says.

In a recent paper, Jin and his colleagues demonstrated that machine learning systems can be trained to detect occupancy without any initial information from a home owner. “You just need a smart meter that listens over time,” he says, “as well as the basic assumption that different types of buildings have different occupancy patterns, for example, commercial buildings are typically occupied during the day and not the night and homes are the opposite.” Using this assumption, the machine learning algorithms were able to tease out more detailed characteristics about power consumption when a home is occupied; they then are able to tell when someone is home or not, even when that person’s patterns are outside the norm.

How to keep occupancy data private and still provide the information utilities need to manage their grids is the next area of research, Jin says. “Right now, meters are sending accurate information about energy consumption. To protect privacy, you could add some noise to that data. We are now looking to determine the optimal size of the added noise that would mask information about occupancy and still give the utility company an accurate enough reading for its needs.”

Fired Employee Hacks and Shuts Down Smart Water Readers in Five US Cities

Fired Employee Hacks and Shuts Down Smart Water Readers in Five US Cities

  • June 25, 2017
  • 03:40 AM
  • 1

Smart water grid

A Pennsylvania judge has sentenced Adam Flanagan, 42, of Bala Cynwyd, PA to one year and one day in prison for hacking and damaging the IT networks of several water utility providers across the US East Coast. The sentence was passed down last week for crimes committed in the spring of 2014.

According to court documents obtained by Bleeping Computer, Flanagan worked between November 2007 and November 2013 for an unnamed company that produced smart water, electric, and gas readers.

Flanagan’s role with the company was as an engineer tasked with setting up Tower Gateway Basestations (TGB) for the manufacturer’s customers, which were mainly water utility networks. In modern water grids, TGBs collect data from smart meters installed at people’s homes and relay the information to the water provider’s main systems, where it is logged, monitored for incidents, and processed for billing.

Flanagan disabled water reader base stations

Things turned sour when Flanagan’s employer fired him on November 16, 2013, for undisclosed reasons. This didn’t sit well with Flanagan, who used his knowledge of the TGB stations he installed to access these devices and disable their ability to communicate with their respective water utility providers’ upstream equipment. The former employee also changed passwords to offensive words on some TGBs.

According to court documents, the FBI tracked down Flanagan’s actions to six incidents in five cities across the US East Coast: Aliquippa (Pennsylvania), Egg Harbor (New Jersey), Kennebec (Maine), New Kensington (Pennsylvania), and Spotswood (New Jersey).

Flanagan attacks

Flanagan’s attacks resulted in water utility providers not being able to collect user equipment readings remotely. This incurred damage to the utility providers, who had to send out employees at customer premises to collect monthly readings.

Flanagan faced up to 90 years in prison, $3 million fine

After tracing the attacks back to Flanagan, US authorities filed charges on November 22, 2016, and arrested the suspect and seized his computer a day later.

At the time of his arrest, Flanagan faced a maximum sentence of 90 years in prison, plus a $3 million fine. He pleaded guilty on March 7, 2017, before receiving his sentence on June 14, 2017.

Flanagan is not the first employee to sabotage his employer, nor will he be the last. Similar cases include incidents like:

⬩ A former programmer who planted a “time bomb” in his former employer’s database to delete crucial financial data in the first week of the new fiscal year.
⬩ A former sysadmin who decided to delete his company’s servers and change former colleagues’ passwords on the day he was fired.
⬩ Or, a former IT employee who altered his former employer’s equipment settings, bringing a paper mill’s production to a halt.

Electronic Weapons, Radio Frequency Radiation, Remote Manipulation of the Human Nervous System

Electronic Weapons, Radio Frequency Radiation, Remote Manipulation of the Human Nervous System

New World Order Weapon Ban. Open Letter to the European Commission

By Mojmir Babacek Global Research, April 13, 2017


We are missing a legislation which would ban the purposeful remote manipulation of the human nervous system and organism including remote killing of people.


European Commission
Rue de la Loi 200/ Wetstraat 200
1049 Bruxelles/Brussel

In mid March 2016 the Polish defense minister Antoni Macierewicz visited the University of Father Tadeusz Rydzyk to participate in the discussion on problems of contemporary politics, armed conflicts and terrorism. One of the listeners asked him, whether Poland has got a strategy, how to solve illegal experiments with electromagnetic weapons on unwitting Polish citizens. Antoni Macieriwicz replied that his ministry is conducting an analysis on this subject and that he is going to establish a commission, which will investigate the complaints of Polish citizens.


In this way the Polish minister of defense admitted that there exist electromagnetic weapons, capable to interfere with the functioning of human organism and that it may be used on Polish citizens.

The fact that the major European media did not report on this event, rose our suspicion that the European Union Member States are bound to keep those weapons secret and even bound not to legislate against their use. This our suspicion was confirmed by the Polish weekly NIE, when its journalists were asking the Polish Defense Ministry why it did not fulfill its promise and did not establish a commission which was supposed to investigate complaints of Polish citizens that they are exposed to electromagnetic attacks and the defense ministry replied that this topic is subjected to national security information connected with  the defense of the nation


Evidently this sequence of events connects to the fact stated in the document Crowd Control Technologies, published in 2000 and initiated by the European Parliament, which says that the NATO Member states have accepted the American doctrine of non-lethal weapons, which includes “systems which can directly interact with the human nervous system”


Now it seems to be clear that the European Union Member States have in their arsenal a classified military technology, which can be used for electromagnetic attacks on people. Apparent classification of this issue explains as well your evasive replies to our previous letters on this subject.

Water makes up significant portion of the human body – 55 – 70%. Large portions of this water contain particles which have either accepted or lost an electron and therefore, they have either a positive or negative charge. Those particles may be atoms, molecules or clusters of atoms or molecules. They are called ions. Since liquids in the human body are full of those ions, they can be compared to electrolytes or liquids which conduct electrical current. The most important part in the activity of the human nervous system represent  electrical currents, which are occurring as flows of those charged particles in the nerve fibres. While in electrical wires the electrical current is a flow of free electrons, in the human body and the human nervous system it is a flow of charged ions.

The sources of electrical currents in the nerve fibres are neuronal membranes. The electrical currents start to flow in the nervous fibres, as a result of a change of voltage between the inner and outer surface of neuronal membranes. This change of voltage, on the other hand, is principally caused by electrical currents in the electrolyte which is inside nerve fibres.

In 2014, Chinese scientists published the results of an experiment in which they searched for microwave conductivity of electrolyte solutions. In the introduction they stressed that their experiment “plays an important role in investigating the interaction between electromagnetic waves and biological tissues that have high water content and a significant concentration of ions”. They used a solution of salt for their experiment. The chemical formula of salt is NaCl. It means it contains atoms of sodium and chloride. Ions of both of those atoms play an important role in the firing of nerve cells. The experiment proved that this electrolyte is conductive for microwaves up to 20 gigahertz frequency. For the solutions with higher contents of salt the conductivity of electrolytes was higher with microwaves than with direct current


In other words, the microwaves produced electrical currents in electrolytes, which means that if microwaves penetrate into the electrolyte which is inside the nerve fibres, they will produce electrical currents in there.

The nervous system is controled by neurons called axons. Their membranes react to the electrical currents in the electrolyte which fills their nerve fibres by producing electrical currents. This will then trigger the spreading of the nervous signal in the nervous system.

If a human being is supposed to feel something, do something or think about something, it is necessary that large quantities of neurons start firing at the same frequency. The chance for the effectiveness of the manipulation of the human nervous system with pulsed microwaves is secured by the fact that the variations of the activity of the human nervous system for various perceptions, reactions, emotions, actions and thoughts are expressed in different frequencies or sequels of frequencies. Walter J. Freeman, who studied for decades the electrical activity of the human brain simultaneously introducing multitudes of microelectrodes into different parts of the brain, wrote that in the brain “transmission occurs at some characteristic frequency, and… reception occurs in… sets tuned to that frequency”.

Scientists experimenting with pulsed microwaves reported that electroencephalographic recordings of animal’s brain activities got synchronized with the pulsing of microwaves transmitted into their brains


So, if the electrolytes in the nerve fibres are reached by microwaves, which are pulsed in the nervous activity’s frequencies, the membranes of axons which control the nervous system’s activity and react to electrical voltage’s changes by initiating nerve firing, will react to inflow-frequencies of electrical currents. These currents will be produced by frequencies in which microwaves will be pulsed. In this way, the electrolytes in the nervous tissue will function as antennas and the human nervous system will be controlled by pulsed microwaves, targeting the human body.

The American MCS America organisation, which fights against pollution, confirms this conclusion in its study on Electromagnetic Fields Sensitivity. The study states:

“The body can collect the signal and turn it into electric currents just like the antenna of a radio set or a cell phone. These currents are carried by ions… flowing through the living tissues and in the blood vessels (a system of tubes full of an electrically-conducting salty fluid that connect almost every part of the body) when these currents impinge on cell membranes, which are normally electrically charged, they try to vibrate in time with the current”

(let us note that a neuron is a cell as well). The study goes on stating:

“The mechanism of demodulation is controversial, but there is no doubt that it occurs. The best explanation is that the multitude of minute ion channels found in cell membranes act as electrically biased point contact diodes… these can rectify and demodulate the signal even at microwave frequencies… A cell phone signal, when demodulated in this way, generates a whole family of low frequency components, some of which are biologically-active and cause membrane leakage. One consequence of this leakage is to make the sensory cells of electrosensitive individuals give a whole range of false sensations”.

The reason why the cell phone radiation produces false sensations in some individuals is that the information transfer in cell phone systems is carried out by low frequency microwave pulses which reach the electrolyte in electrosensitive individuals’ nervous systems. Since the nervous activity takes place in low frequencies, it is triggered or incited by those pulses.

Published experiments dedicated to the effects of microwaves on the human nervous system used microwave frequencies which did not exceed much more than one Gigahertz, thus complying with the findings of Chinese scientists on the conductivity of electrolyte for microwaves. In his experiments, Ross Adey in the  1980’s used the 450 Mhz frequency, pulsed at 16 Hz, thus causing calcium efflux from nerve cells which reduces human beings’ ability to concentrate. The experiment was replicated many times with the same results.


Allen H. Frey – as early in the year 1961! – managed to transmit sound perceptions into the human brain by using pulsed frequencies ranging from 425 to 1310 Megahertz. People described the microwave sound as “buzz, clicking, hiss or knocking, depending on several transmitter parameters, i.e., pulse width and pulse repetition rate”, in other words, on the frequency of pulses. When varying the transmitter parameters, Allen H. Frey was able to produce in human beings “the perception of severe buffeting of the head” or “pins and needles sensation”


His experiment was replicated many times with the same results. It was, therefore, proved that it is possible to repeatedly produce the same delusions in the human brain, when microwaves are pulsed in frequencies which mimic the human brain’s neuronal activity.

In 1975, Don R. Justesen, neuropsychologist and Director of Neuropsychology and Behavioral Radiology Research Laboratories with the Veterans Administration Medical Center, published in “The American Psychologist Journal” an experiment, where recordings of pronounced digits from one to ten were transmitted into the human brain via pulsed microwaves and where the subject of the experiment could hear and recognize the digits.


This experiment proved not only feasibility of remote manipulation of the human nervous system but as well feasibility of manipulation of human mind.

When encoding human speech into pulsed microwaves – the procedure is similar to radio broadcasting (human speech only needs to be converted to pulsed microwaves) – it is possible to transmit either audible or inaudible (ultrasound) messages into the human brain. A human being cannot hear ultrasound messages, but the brain perceives them and a person’s behaviour can be controlled and manipulated in this way. The density of electromagnetic energy needed to remotely control the activity of the human nervous system does not exceed the standards set by the European Union. Let’s just remember that cellphone signals can penetrate into the human brain.

A skillful radioamateur is capable to produce a transmitter able to remotely control the activity of the human nervous system for criminal groups which could then endanger the mental and physical health of people in their surroundings. They could easily put drivers to sleep by pulsing microwaves into the sleep frequencies or with more sophisticated pulsing, they could stop a person’s heart beat and make him or she die. It is known that Allen H. Frey produced heart attacks in frogs with pulsed microwaves.

At the same time a growing number of people worldwide complain that they are exposed to such harmful radiations, but do not have any means of defense against their use. Among the main symptoms, they claim to have, are burns on their bodies or burning sensations, pins and needles sensations, feelings of being stabbed or squashed, violent vomiting, cramps going as far as reaching temporary paralyses, remotely controlled movements of their body parts, breath shortness sometimes reaching heart arrest, nausea, voice-hearings and manipulations of their thoughts and emotions. They usually end up showing depression and suicidal tendencies. When complaining about the symptoms and claiming that they are caused by electromagnetic radiation, they are frequently sent to psychiatric hospitals, without any expert investigations of their complaints.

This makes plausible the idea that the military and government agencies operators of those weapons are practising their skills in the use of those weapons on unwitting citizens, to be able to use those acquired skills in possible future wars or to use them in the case of massive civil disobedience against citizens of their countries.

Since government agencies, and possibly organized crime, are capable to remotely manipulate the human nervous system and cause physical torture, mental confusion or death of people, without leaving any evidence of the committed crime, it is necessary to introduce a legislation, which would prosecute such activities. Part of the legislation should also be the prohibition of the use of those technologies for the state security agencies, because their possession of such technologies would be in sharp contradiction with the democratic constitutions of European Union Member States. We are willing to participate in the preparation of this legislation.

Any technology, which would produce in the human nervous system the flows of electric currents with the frequencies of its activity, can be used to control remotely the activity of the human brain and  body. At the present time pulsed microwaves are the only technology known to be fit to produce this effect, but easily, with contemporary fast advances of the scientific research, especially in quantum physics, other technologies can be developed or already have been developed. Therefore, the legislation should ban as well the use of so far unknown or unpublished technologies which enable the remote manipulation of electrical currents in the human brain and body.

Because of the fact that at least  the European NATO  member states are apparently bound by an agreement to keep those weapons secret, it is evident, that the legislation we are proposing, can be enacted in the European Union Member states only if it is recommended to them by the European Commission and if the EU member states act together  – or even if the principle of subsidiarity is bypassed and the legislation is passed directly by the European Parliament.

We still have confidence that you will not support the criminal use of electromagnetic or other energetic fields against the citizens of the European Union Member States and that you will recommend  to the European Union Member States and to the European Parliament to enact legislations, which will protect the citizens of the European Union Member States against such attacks establish harsh sentences for the perpetrators of such attacks and which will create agencies specialized in the detection of attacks using the remote manipulation of the functioning of the human nervous system to produce symptoms of mental illness or to torture or kill people without leaving evidence of the committed crime.

We still believe as well that you are aware of the crisis of democracy created by the governments’ secret possession of means enabling them to remotely manipulate the minds of their citizens. This is in frightening conflict with the constitutions of the European Union Member States.

We still hope that you will stick to the values of respect for human dignity, freedom and democracy embedded in the Treaty on European Union and will work for the ban of the use of technologies which make it possible to deprive people of their personal freedom and freedom of thought creating thus totalitarian regimes of a new type.

More scientific information on those weapons of mass destruction, much more dangerous than chemical or biological weapons, which are already subjected to international ban, readers may find in the book “Discovery of Mind Control and History of Psychotronic War” – electronic copy of the book can be ordered at the address for $9.99

The petition to the European Parliament you can sign at the address below:

EMR Updates: The Microwave Factor

EMR Updates: The Microwave Factor

The Newsletter of EMF Refugee,
The International Coalition for an Electromagnetic Safe Planet (IC-ESP)

Bees, butterflies and wildlife: Research on electromagnetic fields and the environment

Electromagnetic fields from powerlines, cell phones, cell towers and wireless impacts the birds, bees, wildlife and our environment. Below is just a small example of the critical research that has been done on this issue.

“The electromagnetic radiation standards used by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) continue to be based on thermal heating, a criterion now nearly 30 years out of date and inapplicable today.”

-The Department of Interior in a 2014 letter on the impact of cell towers on migratory birds.

Balmori, Alfonso. “Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as an emerging threat to wildlife orientation.” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 518–519, 2015, pp. 58–60

• The growth of wireless telecommunication technologies causes increased electrosmog. Radio frequency fields in the MHz range disrupt insect and bird orientation.

• Radio frequency noise interferes with the primary process of magnetoreception. Existing guidelines do not adequately protect wildlife. Further research in this area is urgent.

Cucurachi, C., et al. “A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Environment International, vol. 51, 2013, pp. 116–40.

• A Review of 113 studies from original peer-reviewed publications. RF-EMF had a significant effect on birds, insects, other vertebrates, other organisms and plants in 70% of the studies. Development and reproduction of birds and insects are the most strongly affected endpoints.

Balmori, A. “Electrosmog and species conservation.” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 496, 2014, pp. 314-6.

• “Conclusion: At the present time, there are reasonable grounds for believing that microwave radiation constitutes an environmental and health hazard….Concerning the exposure to electromagnetic fields, the precautionary principle is needed and should be applied to protect species from environmental non-thermal effects (Zinelis, 2010). Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe to the environment, since this new ubiquitous and invisible pollutant could deplete the efforts devoted to species conservation.”

Manville, Albert M. “A BRIEFING MEMORANDUM: What We Know, Can Infer, and Don’t Yet Know about Impacts from Thermal and Non-thermal Non-ionizing Radiation to Birds and Other Wildlife.” Wildlife and Habitat Conservation Solutions, 2014.

• “In summary, we need to better understand … how to address these growing and poorly understood radiation impacts to migratory birds, bees, bats, and myriad other wildlife. At present, given industry and agency intransigence … massive amounts of money being spent to prevent addressing impacts from non-thermal radiation — not unlike the battles over tobacco and smoking — and a lack of significant, dedicated and reliable funding to advance independent field studies, … we are left with few options. Currently, other than to proceed using the precautionary approach and keep emissions as low as reasonably achievable, we are at loggerheads in advancing meaningful guidelines, policies and regulations that address non-thermal effects….”

Bees And Butterflies

“Cryptochromes are very badly affected by weak oscillating electromagnetic fields that are orders of magnitude weaker than the Earth’s steady magnetic field. This can disrupt both solar and magnetic navigation, which can account for colony collapse disorder in bees.”

—Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy

Research clearly shows that Bees and Butterflies are sensitive to electromagnetic fields.

Cammaerts, Marie-Claire. “Is electromagnetism one of the causes of the CCD? A work plan for testing this hypothesis.” Journal of Behavior, vol. 2, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1006.

• The decline of domestic bees all over the world is an important problem still not well understood by scientists and beekeepers, and far from being solved. Its reasons are numerous: among others, the use of pesticides and insecticides, the decrease of plant diversity, and bee’s parasites. Besides these threats, there is a potential adverse factor little considered: manmade electromagnetism.

• The present paper suggests two simple experimental protocols for bringing to the fore the potential adverse effect of electromagnetism on bees and to act consequently. The first one is the observation of bees’ avoidance of a wireless apparatus; the second one is the assessment of colonies’ strength and of the intensity of the electromagnetism field (EMF) surrounding them. If bees avoid a wireless apparatus, if hives in bad health are located in EMF of a rather high intensity, it can be presumed that bees are affected by manmade electromagnetism. This should enable searching for palliative measures.

Goldsworthy, Andrew. “The Birds, the Bees and Electromagnetic Pollution: How electromagnetic fields can disrupt both solar and magnetic bee navigation and reduce immunity to disease all in one go.” 2009.

• Many of our birds are disappearing mysteriously from the urban environment and our bees are now under serious threat. There is increasing evidence that at least some of this is due to electromagnetic pollution such as that from cell towers, cell phones, DECT cordless phones and Wifi. It appears capable of interfering with their navigation systems and also their circadian rhythms, which in turn reduces their resistance to disease. The most probable reason is that these animals use a group of magnetically-sensitive substances called cryptochromes for magnetic and solar navigation and also to control the activity of their immune systems.

Guerra, Patrick A., Robert J. Gegear, and Steven M. Reppert. “A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.” Nature Communications, vol. 5, no. 4164, 2014.

• “Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equator ward in the fall. Another vulnerability to now consider is the potential disruption of the magnetic compass in monarchs by human-induced electromagnetic noise, which can apparently disrupt geomagnetic orientation in a migratory bird.”

Kumar, Neelima R., Sonika Sangwan, and Pooja Badotra. “Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees.” Toxicol Int., 18, no. 1, 2011, pp. 70–2.

• The present study was carried out to find the effect of cell phone radiations on various biomolecules in the adult workers of Apis mellifera L. The results of the treated adults were analyzed and compared with the control. Radiation from the cell phone influences honey bees’ behavior and physiology. There was reduced motor activity of the worker bees on the comb initially, followed by en masse migration and movement toward “talk mode” cell phone. The initial quiet period was characterized by rise in concentration of biomolecules including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, perhaps due to stimulation of body mechanism to fight the stressful condition created by the radiations. At later stages of exposure, there was a slight decline in the concentration of biomolecules probably because the body had adapted to the stimulus.

Favre, Daniel. “Mobile phone induced honeybee worker piping.” Apidologie, vol. 42, 2011, pp. 270-9.

• Electromagnetic waves originating from mobile phones had a dramatic impact on the behavior of the bees, namely by inducing the worker piping signal. In natural conditions, worker piping either announces the swarming process of the bee colony or is a signal of a disturbed bee colony.

Warnke, Ulrich. “Birds, Bees and Mankind: Destroying Nature by ‘Electrosmog’.” Competence Initiative for the Protection of Humanity, Environment and Democracy, Brochure 1, 2009.

• Bees pollinate approximately 1/3 of all crops  and they are disappearing by the millions. Warnke raises the concern that the dense, energetic mesh of electromagnetic fields from wireless technologies may be the cause.

Sharma, V.P. and N.K. Kumar. “Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations.” Current Science, vol. 98, no 10, 2010, pp. 1376-8.

• We have compared the performance of honeybees in cell phone radiation exposed and unexposed colonies. A significant (p < 0.05) decline in colony strength and in the egg laying rate of the queen was observed. The behaviour of exposed foragers was negatively influenced by the exposure, there was neither honey nor pollen in the colony at the end of the experiment.”

“Briefing Paper on the Need for Research into the Cumulative Impacts of Communication Towers on Migratory Birds and Other Wildlife in the United States.” Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 2009.

• Of concern to DMBM are the potential impacts of radiation on bird populations.For example, preliminary research on wild birds at cellular phone tower sites in Spain  showed strong negative correlations between levels of tower-emitted microwave radiation and bird breeding, nesting, and roosting in the vicinity of the electromagnetic fields.

Harst, Wolfgang Harst, Jochen Kuhn and Hermann Stever. “Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? Studying Possible Non-thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach Within the Framework of Educational Informatics.” Acta Systemica-IIAS International Journal, vol 6, no. 1, 2006, pp. 1-6.

• A pilot study on honeybees testing the effects of non-thermal, high frequency electromagnetic radiation on beehive weight and flight return behavior.   In exposed hives, bees constructed 21% fewer cells in the hive frames after 9 days than those unexposed.

Sainudeen, Sahib.S. “Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Clashes with Honey Bees.” International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, no. 5, 2011.

• Recently a sharp decline in population of honey bees has been observed in Kerala. Although the bees are susceptible to diseases and attacked by natural enemies like wasps, ants and wax moth, constant vigilance on the part of the bee keepers can over come these adverse conditions. The present plunge in population (< 0.01) was not due to these reasons. It was caused by man due to unscientific proliferation of towers and mobile phones.”

• Six colonies of honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) were selected. Three colonies were selected as test colonies (T1,T2&T3) and the rest were as control (C1,C2&C3). The test colonies were provided with mobile phones in working conditions with frequency of 900 MHz for 10 minutes for a short period of ten days. After ten days the worker bees never returned hives in the test colonies. The massive amount of radiation produced by mobile phones and towers is actually frying the navigational skills of the honey bees and preventing them from returning back to their hives.

• The study concludes, “More must also be done to compensate individuals and communities put at risk. Insurance covering diseases related to towers, such as cancer, should be provided for free to people living in 1 km radius around the tower. Independent monitoring of radiation levels and overall health of the community and nature surrounding towers is necessary to identify hazards early. Communities need to be given the opportunity to reject cell towers and national governments need to consider ways of growing their cellular networks without constantly exposing people to radiation.”

“The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment.” Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, resolution 1815, 2011.

• The potential health effects of the very low frequency of electromagnetic fields surrounding power lines and electrical devices are the subject of ongoing research and a significant amount of public debate. While electrical and electromagnetic fields in certain frequency bands have fully beneficial effects which are applied in medicine, other non-ionising frequencies, be they sourced from extremely low frequencies, power lines or certain high frequency waves used in the fields of radar, telecommunications and mobile telephony, appear to have more or less potentially harmful, non-thermal, biological effects on plants, insects and animals, as well as the human body when exposed to levels that are below the official threshold values. One must respect the precautionary principle and revise the current threshold values; waiting for high levels of scientific and clinical proof can lead to very high health and economic costs, as was the case in the past with asbestos, leaded petrol and tobacco

• As regards standards or threshold values for emissions of electromagnetic fields of all types and frequencies, the Assembly strongly recommends that the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is applied, covering both the so-called thermal effects and the athermic or biological effects of electromagnetic emissions or radiation. Moreover, the precautionary principle should be applied when scientific evaluation does not allow the risk to be determined with sufficient certainty.

Kimmel, Stefan, et al. “Electromagnetic radiation: influences on honeybees (Apis mellifera). IIAS-InterSymp Conference, 2007.

• 39.7% of the non-irradiated bees had returned to their hives while only 7.3% of the irradiated bees had.

Clarke, Dominic, et al. “Detection and Learning of Floral Electric Fields by Bumblebees.” Science, vol. 340, no. 6128, 2013, pp. 66-9. 5

• “We report a formerly unappreciated sensory modality in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), detection of floral electric fields. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this sensory modality may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.”

Gegear, Robert J. et al. “Animal Cryptochromes Mediate Magnetoreception by an Unconventional Photochemical Mechanism.” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7282, 2010, pp. 804.

• “A team of neurobiologists that has investigated the mysteries of monarch migration for many years now reports that photoreceptor proteins found in monarch butterflies are linked to animal navigation. Their research finds that two types of photoreceptor proteins not only allow the butterflies to see UV light (light that is less than 420nm long, and thus, is invisible to humans), but also allows them to sense the Earth’s geomagnetic field. These photoreceptor proteins are known as cryptochromes.”

Oschman, James and Nora Oschman. “Electromagnetic communication and olfaction in insects.” Frontier Perspectives, 2004.

“Report on Possible Impacts of Communication Towers on Wildlife Including Birds and Bees.”  Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, 2010.

• This report details the on impacts of communication towers on wildlife including birds and bees submitted to MoEF. It  warns of harmful radiation and recommends special laws to protect urban flora & fauna from threats radiation emerging from mobile towers.

Sivani, S., and D. Sudarsanam. “Impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell phone towers and wireless devices on biosystem and ecosystem – A Review.” Biology and Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, 2012, pp. 202–16.

• There is an urgent need for further research  and “of the 919 research papers collected on birds, bees, plants, other animals, and humans, 593 showed impacts, 180 showed no impacts, and 196 were inconclusive studies”.

• “One can take the precautionary principle approach and reduce RF-EMF radiation effects of cell phone towers by relocating towers away from densely populated areas, increasing height of towers or changing the direction of the antenna.”

Malkemper, E.P., et al. “Magnetoreception in the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus): influence of weak frequency-modulated radio frequency fields.”Scientific Reports, vol. 4, no. 9917, 2015.

• Wood mice exposed to a 0.9 to 5 MHz frequency sweep changed their preference from north-south to east-west. In contrast to birds, however, a constant frequency field tuned to the Larmor frequency (1.33 MHz) had no effect on mouse orientation. In sum, we demonstrated magnetoreception in wood mice and provide first evidence for a radical-pair mechanism in a mammal.Open Access Paper:

• In sum, we show that wood mice possess a magnetic sense that they use to position their nests along the NNE-SSW axis relative to the magnetic field. The NNE-SSW preference was not altered by RF fields delivered at the Larmor frequency, but was shifted by approximately 90° by a RF frequency sweep (0.9–5 MHz repeated at 1 kHz) at an intensity of only ~5% that of the Larmor frequency stimulus.

• The results point to the involvement of a radical pair mechanism, the first such evidence for a mammal, although further research is needed to provide a more thorough characterization of the underlying mechanism.

• The RF magnetic fields applied here have peak intensities below the ICNIRP guidelines for general public exposure (63, i.e., Brms = 0.92 µT/f [MHz], or Bpeak = 1.30 µT/f [MHz]) considered as harmless for human health. Yet, we show that they are sufficient to affect behaviour in a mammal.


Schwarze, S.,, et al. “Weak Broadband Electromagnetic Fields are More Disruptive to Magnetic Compass Orientation in a Night-Migratory Songbird (Erithacus rubecula) than Strong Narrow-Band Fields.” Front Behav Neurosci., vol. 10, no. 55, 2016.

• Magnetic compass orientation in night-migratory songbirds is embedded in the visual system and seems to be based on a light-dependent radical pair mechanism. Recent findings suggest that both broadband electromagnetic fields ranging from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz and narrow-band fields at the so-called Larmor frequency for a free electron in the Earth’s magnetic field can disrupt this mechanism. However, due to local magnetic fields generated by nuclear spins, effects specific to the Larmor frequency are difficult to understand considering that the primary sensory molecule should be organic and probably a protein. We therefore constructed a purpose-built laboratory and tested the orientation capabilities of European robins in an electromagnetically silent environment, under the specific influence of four different oscillating narrow-band electromagnetic fields, at the Larmor frequency, double the Larmor frequency, 1.315 MHz or 50 Hz, and in the presence of broadband electromagnetic noise covering the range from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz. Our results indicated that the magnetic compass orientation of European robins could not be disrupted by any of the relatively strong narrow-band electromagnetic fields employed here, but that the weak broadband field very efficiently disrupted their orientation.

Engels, S. et al. “Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird.” Nature, vol. 509, 2014, pp. 353–6.

• Scientists found that migrating robins became disorientated when exposed to electromagnetic fields at levels far lower than the safety threshold for humans. “Here we show that migratory birds are unable to use their magnetic compass in the presence of urban electromagnetic noise…These fully double-blinded tests document a reproducible effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise on the behavior of an intact vertebrate.”

Balmori A. “Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields from Phone Masts on a Population of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia).” Electromagn Biol Med, vol. 24, no. 2, 2005, pp. 109-19.

• Interesting behavioral observations of the white stork nesting sites located within 100m of one or several cell site antennas were carried out. These results are compatible with the possibility that microwaves are interfering with the reproduction of white storks and would corroborate the results of laboratory research by other authors In far away areas, where the radiation decreases progressively, the chronic exposure can also have long term effects. Effects from antennas on the habitat of birds are difficult to quantify, but they can cause a serious deterioration, generating silent areas without male singers or reproductive couples.

Kavokin, K., et al. “Magnetic orientation of garden warblers (Sylvia borin) under 1.4 MHz radiofrequency magnetic field.” Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, vol. 11, no. 97, 2014.

• “Birds in experimental cages, deprived of visual information, showed the seasonally appropriate direction of intended flight with respect to the magnetic meridian. Weak radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field (190 nT at 1.4 MHz) disrupted this orientation ability.”

• “These results may be considered as an independent replication of earlier experiments, performed by the group of R. and W. Wiltschko with European robins (Erithacus rubecula). Confirmed outstanding sensitivity of the birds’ magnetic compass to RF fields in the lower megahertz range demands for a revision of one of the mainstream theories of magnetoreception, the radical-pair model of birds’ magnetic compass.”

• “As discussed above, the high sensitivity of the birds’ magnetic compass to RF fields, found in [21,22,24] and now confirmed by us, is difficult to explain within the existing radical-pair theory ….”

Cammaerts, M.C. and Johansson, O. “Ants can be used as bio-indicators to reveal biological effects of electromagnetic waves from some wireless apparatus.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, 2014, pp. 282-8.

• “the linear and angular speed of ants are immediately altered by the presence of EMF/RF fields.  Based on these results, the authors advise users to deactivate the WiFi function of their PC/laptop.”

Margaritis, L.H., et al. “Drosophila oogenesis as a biomarker responding to EMF sources.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 165-89.

• A total of 280 different experiments were performed. Exposure to wireless devices such as WiFi, baby monitors, and phones created statistically significant effects regarding reproduction and cell death apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels (0.3 V/m bluetooth radiation), well below ICNIRP’s guidelines.

Balmori, A. “Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1-2, 2010, pp. 31-5.

• Eggs and tadpoles of the common frog were exposed to electromagnetic radiation from cell phone antennas for two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the frogs development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. “This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.”

Baker, R.R., J.G. Mather and J.H. Kennaugh. “Magnetic bones in human sinuses.” Nature, vol. 301, no. 5895, 1983, pp. 79-80.

• Evidence continues to accumulate that a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, can detect and orient to ambient magnetic fields (for examples see refs 2-4). Since the discovery that magnetic orientation by bacteria was due to the presence within the organism of magnetic particles of the ferric/ferrous oxide, magnetite, the search has begun for other biogenic deposits of inorganic magnetic material and ways in which the possession of such material might confer on the organism the ability to orient to ambient magnetic fields. Such magnetic material, often identified as magnetite, has been discovered in bees, homing pigeons, dolphins and various other organisms, including man. A variety of hypotheses for the use of magnetite in magnetic field detection have been proposed. We report here that bones from the region of the sphenoid/ethmoid sinus complex of humans are magnetic and contain deposits of ferric iron. The possible derivations and functions of these deposits are discussed.

Plants And Trees

Halgamuge, M.N. “Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, 2017, pp. 213-235.

• “Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p < 0.001). Additionally, our analysis of the results from these reported studies demonstrates that the maize, roselle, pea, fenugreek, duckweeds, tomato, onions and mungbean plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies…”

Waldmann-Selsam, C., et al. “Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 572, 2016, pp. 554-69.

Ernst D.A. and K.J. Lohmann. “Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.”. Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 219, pt. 12, pp. 1827-32. 2016

• The Caribbean spiny lobster,Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth’s magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e., toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e., toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors.

Gustavino, B., et al. “Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.” Mutagenesis, vol. 31, no. 2, 2016, pp. 187-92.

• The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell.

• Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m2). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg.

• Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system.

• It is worth noticing that this range of SAR values is well below the international limits for localised exposure (head, trunk), according to the ICNIRP guidelines (35) and IEEE std C95.1 (38), which are 10 (8.0) W/kg for occupational exposure and 2.0 (1.6) W/kg for general public exposure respectively.

Halgamuge, Malka N., See Kye Yak and Jacob L. Eberhardt. “Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 36, no. 2, 2015, pp. 87-95.

• The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated.

• The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m−1) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m−1) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m−1) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated.

• Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field.

Senavirathna, M.D., et al. “Nanometer-scale elongation rate fluctuations in the Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) stem were altered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation.” Plant Signal Behav, vol. 9, no. 3, 2014.

• Statistically significant changes to this plant from a non thermal effect.

Soran, M.L., et al. “Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.” Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 171, no. 15, 2014, pp. 1436-43.

• Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

• The above is only a small sampling of the research showing biological effects at non thermal levels on living organisms.

Fedrowitz, Maren. “Cows: A big model for EMF research, somewhere between Vet-Journals and “Nature”.” The Bioelectromagnetics Society, 2014.

• Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on cows have been frequently discussed in public media as well as in specialist journals and meetings with agricultural, veterinary or dairy backgrounds. Indeed, in view of the available literature, it does seem that cows show EMF susceptibilities and respond to environmental exposures of a broad range of frequencies and properties:

• Cows are sensitive to the Earth´s magnetic field. Bovine magnetoreception can be influenced by external EMF, e.g. powerlines.

• Several physiological alterations in dairy cows exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) EMF were reported without major indications for adverse health effects. Notably, the observed effects seem to be dependent on the magnetic field component or on combined electric and magnetic fields rather than on electric field exposure alone.

• Cows are sensitive to earth currents (stray voltage) associated with transients in particular harmonics. Milk production, health, and behavior seem to be negatively affected.

• Bovine responses to radiofrequency (RF) exposure include avoidance behavior, reduced ruminating time, and alterations in oxidative stress. These findings indicate possible adverse health effects. However, most of the studies have critical points (one-herd-case report, logistic problems in study design, lack of appropriate exposure assessment) that confirmation of the observed RF effects is clearly needed, though studies in such big animals are time-, place-, and money-consuming, and exposure assessment and dosimetry are challenging issues.

• Overall, cattle seem to be affected by environmental EMF exposure. Cows align to geomagnetic field lines and are influenced by ELF EMF

Li, Ying, et al. “Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Developmental Toxicity and Apoptosis in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos.” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 162, no. 1, 2014, pp. 324-32.

• In conclusion, the overall results demonstrated that ELF-MF exposure has detrimental effects on the embryonic development of zebrafish by affecting the hatching, decreasing the heart rate, and inducing apoptosis, although such effects were not mortal threat. The results also indicate that zebrafish embryos can serve as a reliable model to investigate the biological effect of ELF-MF.

Harkless, Ryan, Muntather Al-Quraishi and Mary C. Vagula. “Radiation hazards of radio frequency waves on the early embryonic development of Zebrafish.”SPIE Proceedings, vol. 9112, 2014.

• With the growing use of wireless devices in almost all day-to-day activities, exposure to radio-frequency radiation has become an immediate health concern. It is imperative that the effects of such radiation not only on humans, but also on other organisms be well understood. In particular, it is critical to understand if RF radiation has any bearing on the gene expression during embryonic development, as this is a crucial and delicate phase for any organism. Owing to possible effects that RF radiation may have on gene expression, it is essential to explore the carcinogenic or teratogenic properties that it may show. This study observed the effects of RF radiation emitted from a cellular telephone on the embryonic development of zebrafish.

• This study observed the effects of RF radiation emitted from a cellular telephone on the embryonic development of zebra fish. The expression of the gene shha plays a key role in the early development of the fish. This gene has homologs in humans as well as in other model organisms. Additionally, several biomarkers indicative of cell stress were examined: including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO).

• Results show a significant decrease in the expression of shha, a significant decrease in LDH activity. There was no significant increase in SOD and LPO activity.

Takebe, Arika, et al. “Zebrafish respond to the geomagnetic field by bimodal and group-dependent orientation.”Scientific Reports, vol 2, no. 727, 2012.

• In this study, we found that zebrafish, a model organism suitable for genetic manipulation, responded to a magnetic field as weak as the geomagnetic field.

Haggerty, Katie. “Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings.” International Journal of Forestry Research, vol 2010, no. 836278, 2010.

• “This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline.”

Additional References:

Magneto-reception in cows and other mammals:

Slaby, P., K. Tomanova and M. Vacha. “Cattle on pastures do align along the North-South axis, but the alignment depends on herd density.” J Comp Physiol A, vol. 199, 2013, pp. 695-701.

Hart, V., et al. “Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth´s magnetic field.” Frontiers Zoology, vol. 10, no. 80, 2013.

Eder, S.H.K., et al. “Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate vertebrate magnetoreceptor cells.” PNAS, vol. 109, 2012, pp. 12022-7.

Cerveny, J., et al. “Directional preference max enhance hunting accuracy in foraging foxes.” Biol Lett, vol. 7, 2011, pp. 355-7.

Hert, J., et al. “No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found.” J Comp Physiol A, vol. 197, 2011, pp. 677-82.

Begall, S., et al. “Further support for the alignment of cattle along field lines: reply to Hert et al.” J Comp Physiol A, vol. 197, 2011, pp. 1127-33.

Cressey, D. “The mystery of the magnetic cows.” Nature News, 2011

Burda, H., et al. “Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields disrupt magnetic alignment of ruminants.” PNAS, vol. 106, 2009, pp. 5708-13.

Cressey, D. “Return of the B-field bovines.” Nature News Blog, 2009

Cressey, D. “Magnetic cows are visible from space.” Nature News, 2008

Begall, S., et al. “Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer.” PNAS, vol. 105, 2008, pp. 13451-5.

Effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields in (dairy) cows:

Stelletta, C., et al. “Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electro-magnetic fields on circadian rhythms and distribution of some leukocyte differentiation antigens in dairy cows.” Biomed Environ Sci, vol. 20, no. 2, 2007, pp. 164-70.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and H.G. Monardes. Exposure of pregnant dairy heifer to magnetic fields at 60 Hz and 30 µT.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 28, no. 6, 2007, pp. 471-6.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and M. Rodriguez. “Plasma concentrations of thyroxine in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields.”Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 27, 2006, pp. 553-9.

Nguyen, D.H., L. Richard and J.F. Burchard. “Exposure chamber for determining the biological effects of electric and magnetic fields on dairy cows.”Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 26, no. 2, 2005, pp. 138-44.

Rodriguez, M., et al. “Blood melatonin and prolactin concentrations in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields during 8 h photoperiods.”Bioelectromagnetics, 25, 2004, pp. 508-15.

Burchard, J.F., et al. “Lack of effect of 10 kV/m 60 Hz electric field exposure on pregnant heifer hormones.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 25, no. 4, 2004, pp. 308-12.

Burchard, J.F., H. Monardes and D.H. Nguyen. “Effects of 10 kV, 30 µT, 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields on milk production and feed intake in nonpregnant dairy cattle.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 24, 2003, pp. 557-63.

Rodriguez, M., et al. “Responses of the estrous cycle in dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields (60 Hz) during 8-h photoperiods.” Anim Reprod Sci, vol. 77, no. 1-2, 2003, pp. 11-20.

Broucek, J., et al. “Effect of low magnetic field on calves during prenatal development.” Tierärztl Umschau, vol. 57, 2002, pp. 241-8.

Rodriguez, M., et al. “Effect of electric and magnetic fields (60 Hz) on production, and levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1, in lactating, pregnant cows subjected to short days.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 85, 2002, pp. 2843-9.

Broucek, J., et al. “Effect of low magnetic field on dairy cows.” Tierärztl Umschau, vol. 56, 2001, pp. 364-9.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and E. Block. “Macro- and trace element concentrations in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 20, 1999, pp. 358-64.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen, E. Block. “Effects of electric and magnetic fields on nocturnal melatonin concentrations in dairy cows.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 81, 1998, pp. 722-27.

Burchard, J.F., et al. “Effects of electromagnetic fields on the levels of biogenic amine metabolites, quinolinic acid, and beta-endorphin in the cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows.” Neurochem Res, vol. 23, 1998, pp. 1527-31.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and E. Block. “Progesterone concentrations during estrous cycle of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields.”Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 19, no. 7, 1998, pp. 438-43.

Burchard, J.F., et al. “Biological effects of electric and magnetic fields on productivity of dairy cows.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 79, 1996, pp. 1549-54.

Angell, R.F., et al. “Effects of a high-voltage direct-current transmission line on beef cattle production. Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 11, no. 4, 1990, pp. 273-82.

Algers, B. and J. Hultgren. “Effects of long-term exposure to a 400 kV, 50 Hz transmission line on estrous and fertility in cows.” Prev Vet Med, vol. 5, no. 1, 1987, pp. 21-36.

Algers, B. and K. Hennichs. The effect of exposure to 400 kV transmission lines on the fertility of cowsPrev Vet Med, vol. 3, 1985, pp. 351-61

Effects of stray voltage in cows:

Hillman, D., et al. “Relationship of electric power quality to milk production of dairy herds – Field study with literature review.” Sci Total Environ, vol. 447, 2013, pp. 500-14.

Erdreich, L.S., et al. “Meta-analysis of stray voltage on dairy cattle.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 92, no. 12, 2009, pp. 5951-63.

Effects of radiofrequency fields in cows:

Hässig, M., et al. “Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines.” BMC Vet Res, vol. 10, no. 136, 2014.

Hässig, M., et al. Prevalence of nuclear cataract in Swiss veal calves and its possible association with mobile telephone antenna base stations.” Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd, vol. 151, 2009, pp. 471-8.

Löscher, W. “Survey of effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on production, health and behavior of farm animals.” Prakt Tierarzt, vol. 84, no. 11, 2003.

Wenzel, C., A.C. Wöhr and J. Unshelm. “The effect of electromagnetic transmitters on behaviour of dairy cows.” Prakt Tierarzt, vol. 83, 2002, pp. 260-6.

Löscher, W. and G. Käs. “Behavioral abnormalities in a dairy cow herd near a TV and radio transmitting antenna.” Prakt Tierarzt, vol. 79, 1998, pp. 437-4.

Stärk, K.D., et al. “Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle.” J Pineal Res, vol. 22, no. 4, 1997, pp. 171-6.

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Mount Rainier at sunset. Opponents of the plan for cellular service see it as an unwelcome desecration of nature. Photograph: Inge Johnsson / Alamy/Alamy


They already paved Paradise and put up a parking lot. Now the famous site on the south slope of Mount Rainier National Park’s 14,410ft-tall volcano could be wired for cellular service.

The park, which encompasses 230,000 acres of the Cascades mountain range in Washington state, has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposal to allow Verizon, T-Mobile and AT&T to affix a wireless antenna to the park’s Jackson visitor center.

The antenna would extend coverage around Paradise, a popular destination for visitors known as one of the snowiest places on Earth, but not to the top of the mountain. The proposal has sparked a contentious debate about whether access to smartphones enhances or diminishes the great outdoors.

They are extending the electronic tendrils of commercialization deep into designated wilderness

Jeff Ruch, Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility

Just 100 miles south of Seattle, the park is nevertheless remote: 97% is designated wilderness. The park received 492 comments on the proposal during an earlier stage of the planning process, and received 249 in favor and 241 opposed.

Proponents of cell service argue that it would improve safety in a park that conducts 40 to 50 search and rescue missions each year. One potential benefit is that the park could send real-time information about weather or other hazards to visitors.

But the environmental assessment points out that accessibility can be a mixed bag. Park staff use two-way radios to communicate, and will continue to do so even if the cell antenna is approved. And the study notes that access to cell service “has the potential to increase confidence and risk taking by backcountry travelers relying on digital communication devices rather than traditional methods”.

Access to cell service on roadways can also increase distracted driving, the assessment notes, a safety hazard in its own right.



Protecting ourselves from two-way microwave radiation

Protecting ourselves from two-way microwave radiation

Some may remember back in the 1990s when the first oncologist said his patient died of unusual tumors on the side of her brain that lined up with the antennas in her cell phone. Most folks today don’t realize that all wireless devices, from cell towers to routers, cell phones to tablets, baby monitors to gaming devices and wearables, all operate off of the same two-way microwave radiation.

For years, world scientists have been researching the effects of this low-level, non-ionizing radiation. Thousands of studies have been done, with the vast majority showing biological harm in the form of cancer, infertility, autism, Alzheimer’s, cognitive impairment, behavioral and learning issues, digital addiction, insomnia, headaches, skin rashes, racing heart, ringing ears, nosebleeds and more.

The U.S. National Toxicology Program is in the midst of a multi-year, $25 million landmark study on this type of radiation. In the first set of peer-reviewed findings, they discovered statistically significant DNA damage, and brain and heart tumors with none in the control group. More findings are expected at the end of this year.

Massachusetts is taking a leadership role in protecting the public. Ashland Public Schools has become the first in the nation to take measures while awaiting further instruction from state leaders. Ashland has posted signs in each classroom advising wireless devices be turned off when not in use, wireless access points be turned on only when needed, and as the manufacturers’ fine print indicates, never keep an active device on one’s body.

On Beacon Hill, five legislators have introduced bills to address wireless radiation and public health. The first two bills are scheduled for public hearing on Tuesday, June 20, 1-4 p.m. Senator Michael O. Moore’s S.1864 will give residents the right to choose a non-radiation-emitting public utility meter (gas, electric, water, solar, etc.). Senator Julian Cyr’s S.108 addresses safe use of hand-held devices by children.

In the fall, additional bills by Senator Karen Spilka, Senator Cyr, Senator Donald Humason and Representative Carolyn Dykema will come up for public hearing to educate our doctors, schools and the general public on wireless radiation risks and safer technology practices.

Until these bills are enacted and/or biologically safe mobile technology is brought to market, there are simple but important measures we can all choose to reduce our radiation exposure: connect to the internet via hard-wired fiber optics and Ethernet cables, then turn off the wireless emissions at work, home, school and leisure spaces. When on the go, keep devices in airplane mode except when needed as this disables the radiation transmissions, and never give a child a wireless device in active mode.

Other best practices are to create radiation-free white zones, especially in sleeping areas so the radiation doesn’t disrupt our body’s ability to cell repair while we sleep. Distances of a quarter to a half mile (for those with health complications) minimum should be established from cell towers, including the street-level antennas being installed in neighborhoods to support 5G infrastructure.

More than 200 leading scientists and public health experts have submitted an International Appeal to the World Health Organization and United Nations seeking their leadership in bringing public policy in line with current scientific evidence of harm.


Following the lead from France, Israel, Russia and other countries, Massachusetts legislators are to be congratulated for taking important first steps to protect the commonwealth’s residents.

Those wishing to learn more and/or submit testimony for the bills are encouraged to go to

Cece Doucette lives in Ashland.

Following the lead from France, Israel, Russia and other countries, Massachusetts legislators are to be congratulated for taking important first steps to protect the commonwealth’s residents.

Those wishing to learn more and/or submit testimony for the bills are encouraged to go to

Cece Doucette lives in Ashland.

Major Canadian study finds cell phone use increases risk for brain cancer

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 May 23. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx157. [Epub ahead of print]

Probabilistic multiple-bias modelling applied to the Canadian data from the INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and risk of glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors.


We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the thirteen-country INTERPHONE case-control study (2001-2004), which evaluated the association between mobile phone use and risk of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. The main publication of the multinational INTERPHONE study concluded that “biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation”. We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and non-participant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. Our modelling sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, the odds ratio comparing highest quartile of use (over 558 lifetime hours) to non-regular users was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). The odds ratio was 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.1) when adjusted for selection and recall biases. There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our Canadian results.


bias; bias modelling; brain tumors; cancer; case-control study; head and neck tumors; mobile phones

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