Electronic Weapons, Radio Frequency Radiation, Remote Manipulation of the Human Nervous System

Electronic Weapons, Radio Frequency Radiation, Remote Manipulation of the Human Nervous System

New World Order Weapon Ban. Open Letter to the European Commission

By Mojmir Babacek Global Research, April 13, 2017

OPEN LETTER TO THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION

We are missing a legislation which would ban the purposeful remote manipulation of the human nervous system and organism including remote killing of people.

Secretariat-General 

European Commission
Rue de la Loi 200/ Wetstraat 200
1049 Bruxelles/Brussel
Belgium

In mid March 2016 the Polish defense minister Antoni Macierewicz visited the University of Father Tadeusz Rydzyk to participate in the discussion on problems of contemporary politics, armed conflicts and terrorism. One of the listeners asked him, whether Poland has got a strategy, how to solve illegal experiments with electromagnetic weapons on unwitting Polish citizens. Antoni Macieriwicz replied that his ministry is conducting an analysis on this subject and that he is going to establish a commission, which will investigate the complaints of Polish citizens.

(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgVs4-m0lNY#t=33

http://www.dziennikzachodni.pl/polska-i-swiat/a/minister-macierewicz-o-broni-elektromagnetycznej-zdjecia-wideo-raport-juz-wkrotce,9741513/).

In this way the Polish minister of defense admitted that there exist electromagnetic weapons, capable to interfere with the functioning of human organism and that it may be used on Polish citizens.

The fact that the major European media did not report on this event, rose our suspicion that the European Union Member States are bound to keep those weapons secret and even bound not to legislate against their use. This our suspicion was confirmed by the Polish weekly NIE, when its journalists were asking the Polish Defense Ministry why it did not fulfill its promise and did not establish a commission which was supposed to investigate complaints of Polish citizens that they are exposed to electromagnetic attacks and the defense ministry replied that this topic is subjected to national security information connected with  the defense of the nation

(http://nie.com.pl/artykul-str-glowna-12/macierewicz-zdalnie-sterowany/#more-38883).

Evidently this sequence of events connects to the fact stated in the document Crowd Control Technologies, published in 2000 and initiated by the European Parliament, which says that the NATO Member states have accepted the American doctrine of non-lethal weapons, which includes “systems which can directly interact with the human nervous system”

(http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/stoa/2000/168394/DG-4-STOA_ET%282000%29168394_EN%28PAR02%29.pdf).

Now it seems to be clear that the European Union Member States have in their arsenal a classified military technology, which can be used for electromagnetic attacks on people. Apparent classification of this issue explains as well your evasive replies to our previous letters on this subject.

Water makes up significant portion of the human body – 55 – 70%. Large portions of this water contain particles which have either accepted or lost an electron and therefore, they have either a positive or negative charge. Those particles may be atoms, molecules or clusters of atoms or molecules. They are called ions. Since liquids in the human body are full of those ions, they can be compared to electrolytes or liquids which conduct electrical current. The most important part in the activity of the human nervous system represent  electrical currents, which are occurring as flows of those charged particles in the nerve fibres. While in electrical wires the electrical current is a flow of free electrons, in the human body and the human nervous system it is a flow of charged ions.

The sources of electrical currents in the nerve fibres are neuronal membranes. The electrical currents start to flow in the nervous fibres, as a result of a change of voltage between the inner and outer surface of neuronal membranes. This change of voltage, on the other hand, is principally caused by electrical currents in the electrolyte which is inside nerve fibres.

In 2014, Chinese scientists published the results of an experiment in which they searched for microwave conductivity of electrolyte solutions. In the introduction they stressed that their experiment “plays an important role in investigating the interaction between electromagnetic waves and biological tissues that have high water content and a significant concentration of ions”. They used a solution of salt for their experiment. The chemical formula of salt is NaCl. It means it contains atoms of sodium and chloride. Ions of both of those atoms play an important role in the firing of nerve cells. The experiment proved that this electrolyte is conductive for microwaves up to 20 gigahertz frequency. For the solutions with higher contents of salt the conductivity of electrolytes was higher with microwaves than with direct current

(http://piers.org/piersproceedings/download.php?file=cGllcnMyMDE0R3Vhbmd6aG91fDJBMF8wNjcwLnBkZnwxNDAzMTgwNDU1MDE=).

In other words, the microwaves produced electrical currents in electrolytes, which means that if microwaves penetrate into the electrolyte which is inside the nerve fibres, they will produce electrical currents in there.

The nervous system is controled by neurons called axons. Their membranes react to the electrical currents in the electrolyte which fills their nerve fibres by producing electrical currents. This will then trigger the spreading of the nervous signal in the nervous system.

If a human being is supposed to feel something, do something or think about something, it is necessary that large quantities of neurons start firing at the same frequency. The chance for the effectiveness of the manipulation of the human nervous system with pulsed microwaves is secured by the fact that the variations of the activity of the human nervous system for various perceptions, reactions, emotions, actions and thoughts are expressed in different frequencies or sequels of frequencies. Walter J. Freeman, who studied for decades the electrical activity of the human brain simultaneously introducing multitudes of microelectrodes into different parts of the brain, wrote that in the brain “transmission occurs at some characteristic frequency, and… reception occurs in… sets tuned to that frequency”.

Scientists experimenting with pulsed microwaves reported that electroencephalographic recordings of animal’s brain activities got synchronized with the pulsing of microwaves transmitted into their brains

(http://www.mapcruzin.com/radiofrequency/henry_lai1.htm).

So, if the electrolytes in the nerve fibres are reached by microwaves, which are pulsed in the nervous activity’s frequencies, the membranes of axons which control the nervous system’s activity and react to electrical voltage’s changes by initiating nerve firing, will react to inflow-frequencies of electrical currents. These currents will be produced by frequencies in which microwaves will be pulsed. In this way, the electrolytes in the nervous tissue will function as antennas and the human nervous system will be controlled by pulsed microwaves, targeting the human body.

The American MCS America organisation, which fights against pollution, confirms this conclusion in its study on Electromagnetic Fields Sensitivity. The study states:

“The body can collect the signal and turn it into electric currents just like the antenna of a radio set or a cell phone. These currents are carried by ions… flowing through the living tissues and in the blood vessels (a system of tubes full of an electrically-conducting salty fluid that connect almost every part of the body) when these currents impinge on cell membranes, which are normally electrically charged, they try to vibrate in time with the current” http://mcs-america.org/index_files/EHS.htm

(let us note that a neuron is a cell as well). The study goes on stating:

“The mechanism of demodulation is controversial, but there is no doubt that it occurs. The best explanation is that the multitude of minute ion channels found in cell membranes act as electrically biased point contact diodes… these can rectify and demodulate the signal even at microwave frequencies… A cell phone signal, when demodulated in this way, generates a whole family of low frequency components, some of which are biologically-active and cause membrane leakage. One consequence of this leakage is to make the sensory cells of electrosensitive individuals give a whole range of false sensations”.

The reason why the cell phone radiation produces false sensations in some individuals is that the information transfer in cell phone systems is carried out by low frequency microwave pulses which reach the electrolyte in electrosensitive individuals’ nervous systems. Since the nervous activity takes place in low frequencies, it is triggered or incited by those pulses.

Published experiments dedicated to the effects of microwaves on the human nervous system used microwave frequencies which did not exceed much more than one Gigahertz, thus complying with the findings of Chinese scientists on the conductivity of electrolyte for microwaves. In his experiments, Ross Adey in the  1980’s used the 450 Mhz frequency, pulsed at 16 Hz, thus causing calcium efflux from nerve cells which reduces human beings’ ability to concentrate. The experiment was replicated many times with the same results.

(http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a242515.pdf),

Allen H. Frey – as early in the year 1961! – managed to transmit sound perceptions into the human brain by using pulsed frequencies ranging from 425 to 1310 Megahertz. People described the microwave sound as “buzz, clicking, hiss or knocking, depending on several transmitter parameters, i.e., pulse width and pulse repetition rate”, in other words, on the frequency of pulses. When varying the transmitter parameters, Allen H. Frey was able to produce in human beings “the perception of severe buffeting of the head” or “pins and needles sensation”

(http://jap.physiology.org/content/17/4/689).

His experiment was replicated many times with the same results. It was, therefore, proved that it is possible to repeatedly produce the same delusions in the human brain, when microwaves are pulsed in frequencies which mimic the human brain’s neuronal activity.

In 1975, Don R. Justesen, neuropsychologist and Director of Neuropsychology and Behavioral Radiology Research Laboratories with the Veterans Administration Medical Center, published in “The American Psychologist Journal” an experiment, where recordings of pronounced digits from one to ten were transmitted into the human brain via pulsed microwaves and where the subject of the experiment could hear and recognize the digits.

(https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B3V8FIUj7brsMzJhOTY4ZWItMGI5OC00MzkzLWJjMDQtMDM0OGE1ZDFhOGFm/edit?authkey=CKnE554O&hl=en&pli=1).

This experiment proved not only feasibility of remote manipulation of the human nervous system but as well feasibility of manipulation of human mind.

When encoding human speech into pulsed microwaves – the procedure is similar to radio broadcasting (human speech only needs to be converted to pulsed microwaves) – it is possible to transmit either audible or inaudible (ultrasound) messages into the human brain. A human being cannot hear ultrasound messages, but the brain perceives them and a person’s behaviour can be controlled and manipulated in this way. The density of electromagnetic energy needed to remotely control the activity of the human nervous system does not exceed the standards set by the European Union. Let’s just remember that cellphone signals can penetrate into the human brain.

A skillful radioamateur is capable to produce a transmitter able to remotely control the activity of the human nervous system for criminal groups which could then endanger the mental and physical health of people in their surroundings. They could easily put drivers to sleep by pulsing microwaves into the sleep frequencies or with more sophisticated pulsing, they could stop a person’s heart beat and make him or she die. It is known that Allen H. Frey produced heart attacks in frogs with pulsed microwaves.

At the same time a growing number of people worldwide complain that they are exposed to such harmful radiations, but do not have any means of defense against their use. Among the main symptoms, they claim to have, are burns on their bodies or burning sensations, pins and needles sensations, feelings of being stabbed or squashed, violent vomiting, cramps going as far as reaching temporary paralyses, remotely controlled movements of their body parts, breath shortness sometimes reaching heart arrest, nausea, voice-hearings and manipulations of their thoughts and emotions. They usually end up showing depression and suicidal tendencies. When complaining about the symptoms and claiming that they are caused by electromagnetic radiation, they are frequently sent to psychiatric hospitals, without any expert investigations of their complaints.

This makes plausible the idea that the military and government agencies operators of those weapons are practising their skills in the use of those weapons on unwitting citizens, to be able to use those acquired skills in possible future wars or to use them in the case of massive civil disobedience against citizens of their countries.

Since government agencies, and possibly organized crime, are capable to remotely manipulate the human nervous system and cause physical torture, mental confusion or death of people, without leaving any evidence of the committed crime, it is necessary to introduce a legislation, which would prosecute such activities. Part of the legislation should also be the prohibition of the use of those technologies for the state security agencies, because their possession of such technologies would be in sharp contradiction with the democratic constitutions of European Union Member States. We are willing to participate in the preparation of this legislation.

Any technology, which would produce in the human nervous system the flows of electric currents with the frequencies of its activity, can be used to control remotely the activity of the human brain and  body. At the present time pulsed microwaves are the only technology known to be fit to produce this effect, but easily, with contemporary fast advances of the scientific research, especially in quantum physics, other technologies can be developed or already have been developed. Therefore, the legislation should ban as well the use of so far unknown or unpublished technologies which enable the remote manipulation of electrical currents in the human brain and body.

Because of the fact that at least  the European NATO  member states are apparently bound by an agreement to keep those weapons secret, it is evident, that the legislation we are proposing, can be enacted in the European Union Member states only if it is recommended to them by the European Commission and if the EU member states act together  – or even if the principle of subsidiarity is bypassed and the legislation is passed directly by the European Parliament.

We still have confidence that you will not support the criminal use of electromagnetic or other energetic fields against the citizens of the European Union Member States and that you will recommend  to the European Union Member States and to the European Parliament to enact legislations, which will protect the citizens of the European Union Member States against such attacks establish harsh sentences for the perpetrators of such attacks and which will create agencies specialized in the detection of attacks using the remote manipulation of the functioning of the human nervous system to produce symptoms of mental illness or to torture or kill people without leaving evidence of the committed crime.

We still believe as well that you are aware of the crisis of democracy created by the governments’ secret possession of means enabling them to remotely manipulate the minds of their citizens. This is in frightening conflict with the constitutions of the European Union Member States.

We still hope that you will stick to the values of respect for human dignity, freedom and democracy embedded in the Treaty on European Union and will work for the ban of the use of technologies which make it possible to deprive people of their personal freedom and freedom of thought creating thus totalitarian regimes of a new type.

More scientific information on those weapons of mass destruction, much more dangerous than chemical or biological weapons, which are already subjected to international ban, readers may find in the book “Discovery of Mind Control and History of Psychotronic War” – electronic copy of the book can be ordered at the address babacekbooks@gmail.com for $9.99

The petition to the European Parliament you can sign at the address below:    http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/ben-remote-attacks-on-the-human-nervous-system

http://www.globalresearch.ca/electronic-weapons-radio-frequency-radiation-remote-manipulation-of-the-human-nervous-system/5584676

EMR Updates: The Microwave Factor

EMR Updates: The Microwave Factor

The Newsletter of EMF Refugee,
The International Coalition for an Electromagnetic Safe Planet (IC-ESP)

Bees, butterflies and wildlife: Research on electromagnetic fields and the environment

Electromagnetic fields from powerlines, cell phones, cell towers and wireless impacts the birds, bees, wildlife and our environment. Below is just a small example of the critical research that has been done on this issue.

“The electromagnetic radiation standards used by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) continue to be based on thermal heating, a criterion now nearly 30 years out of date and inapplicable today.”

-The Department of Interior in a 2014 letter on the impact of cell towers on migratory birds.

Balmori, Alfonso. “Anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as an emerging threat to wildlife orientation.” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 518–519, 2015, pp. 58–60

• The growth of wireless telecommunication technologies causes increased electrosmog. Radio frequency fields in the MHz range disrupt insect and bird orientation.

• Radio frequency noise interferes with the primary process of magnetoreception. Existing guidelines do not adequately protect wildlife. Further research in this area is urgent.

Cucurachi, C., et al. “A review of the ecological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).” Environment International, vol. 51, 2013, pp. 116–40.

• A Review of 113 studies from original peer-reviewed publications. RF-EMF had a significant effect on birds, insects, other vertebrates, other organisms and plants in 70% of the studies. Development and reproduction of birds and insects are the most strongly affected endpoints.

Balmori, A. “Electrosmog and species conservation.” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 496, 2014, pp. 314-6.

• “Conclusion: At the present time, there are reasonable grounds for believing that microwave radiation constitutes an environmental and health hazard….Concerning the exposure to electromagnetic fields, the precautionary principle is needed and should be applied to protect species from environmental non-thermal effects (Zinelis, 2010). Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe to the environment, since this new ubiquitous and invisible pollutant could deplete the efforts devoted to species conservation.”

Manville, Albert M. “A BRIEFING MEMORANDUM: What We Know, Can Infer, and Don’t Yet Know about Impacts from Thermal and Non-thermal Non-ionizing Radiation to Birds and Other Wildlife.” Wildlife and Habitat Conservation Solutions, 2014.

• “In summary, we need to better understand … how to address these growing and poorly understood radiation impacts to migratory birds, bees, bats, and myriad other wildlife. At present, given industry and agency intransigence … massive amounts of money being spent to prevent addressing impacts from non-thermal radiation — not unlike the battles over tobacco and smoking — and a lack of significant, dedicated and reliable funding to advance independent field studies, … we are left with few options. Currently, other than to proceed using the precautionary approach and keep emissions as low as reasonably achievable, we are at loggerheads in advancing meaningful guidelines, policies and regulations that address non-thermal effects….”

Bees And Butterflies

“Cryptochromes are very badly affected by weak oscillating electromagnetic fields that are orders of magnitude weaker than the Earth’s steady magnetic field. This can disrupt both solar and magnetic navigation, which can account for colony collapse disorder in bees.”

—Dr. Andrew Goldsworthy

Research clearly shows that Bees and Butterflies are sensitive to electromagnetic fields.

Cammaerts, Marie-Claire. “Is electromagnetism one of the causes of the CCD? A work plan for testing this hypothesis.” Journal of Behavior, vol. 2, no. 1, 2017, pp. 1006.

• The decline of domestic bees all over the world is an important problem still not well understood by scientists and beekeepers, and far from being solved. Its reasons are numerous: among others, the use of pesticides and insecticides, the decrease of plant diversity, and bee’s parasites. Besides these threats, there is a potential adverse factor little considered: manmade electromagnetism.

• The present paper suggests two simple experimental protocols for bringing to the fore the potential adverse effect of electromagnetism on bees and to act consequently. The first one is the observation of bees’ avoidance of a wireless apparatus; the second one is the assessment of colonies’ strength and of the intensity of the electromagnetism field (EMF) surrounding them. If bees avoid a wireless apparatus, if hives in bad health are located in EMF of a rather high intensity, it can be presumed that bees are affected by manmade electromagnetism. This should enable searching for palliative measures.

Goldsworthy, Andrew. “The Birds, the Bees and Electromagnetic Pollution: How electromagnetic fields can disrupt both solar and magnetic bee navigation and reduce immunity to disease all in one go.” 2009.

• Many of our birds are disappearing mysteriously from the urban environment and our bees are now under serious threat. There is increasing evidence that at least some of this is due to electromagnetic pollution such as that from cell towers, cell phones, DECT cordless phones and Wifi. It appears capable of interfering with their navigation systems and also their circadian rhythms, which in turn reduces their resistance to disease. The most probable reason is that these animals use a group of magnetically-sensitive substances called cryptochromes for magnetic and solar navigation and also to control the activity of their immune systems.

Guerra, Patrick A., Robert J. Gegear, and Steven M. Reppert. “A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.” Nature Communications, vol. 5, no. 4164, 2014.

• “Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equator ward in the fall. Another vulnerability to now consider is the potential disruption of the magnetic compass in monarchs by human-induced electromagnetic noise, which can apparently disrupt geomagnetic orientation in a migratory bird.”

Kumar, Neelima R., Sonika Sangwan, and Pooja Badotra. “Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees.” Toxicol Int., 18, no. 1, 2011, pp. 70–2.

• The present study was carried out to find the effect of cell phone radiations on various biomolecules in the adult workers of Apis mellifera L. The results of the treated adults were analyzed and compared with the control. Radiation from the cell phone influences honey bees’ behavior and physiology. There was reduced motor activity of the worker bees on the comb initially, followed by en masse migration and movement toward “talk mode” cell phone. The initial quiet period was characterized by rise in concentration of biomolecules including proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, perhaps due to stimulation of body mechanism to fight the stressful condition created by the radiations. At later stages of exposure, there was a slight decline in the concentration of biomolecules probably because the body had adapted to the stimulus.

Favre, Daniel. “Mobile phone induced honeybee worker piping.” Apidologie, vol. 42, 2011, pp. 270-9.

• Electromagnetic waves originating from mobile phones had a dramatic impact on the behavior of the bees, namely by inducing the worker piping signal. In natural conditions, worker piping either announces the swarming process of the bee colony or is a signal of a disturbed bee colony.

Warnke, Ulrich. “Birds, Bees and Mankind: Destroying Nature by ‘Electrosmog’.” Competence Initiative for the Protection of Humanity, Environment and Democracy, Brochure 1, 2009.

• Bees pollinate approximately 1/3 of all crops  and they are disappearing by the millions. Warnke raises the concern that the dense, energetic mesh of electromagnetic fields from wireless technologies may be the cause.

Sharma, V.P. and N.K. Kumar. “Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations.” Current Science, vol. 98, no 10, 2010, pp. 1376-8.

• We have compared the performance of honeybees in cell phone radiation exposed and unexposed colonies. A significant (p < 0.05) decline in colony strength and in the egg laying rate of the queen was observed. The behaviour of exposed foragers was negatively influenced by the exposure, there was neither honey nor pollen in the colony at the end of the experiment.”

“Briefing Paper on the Need for Research into the Cumulative Impacts of Communication Towers on Migratory Birds and Other Wildlife in the United States.” Division of Migratory Bird Management (DMBM), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 2009.

• Of concern to DMBM are the potential impacts of radiation on bird populations.For example, preliminary research on wild birds at cellular phone tower sites in Spain  showed strong negative correlations between levels of tower-emitted microwave radiation and bird breeding, nesting, and roosting in the vicinity of the electromagnetic fields.

Harst, Wolfgang Harst, Jochen Kuhn and Hermann Stever. “Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? Studying Possible Non-thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach Within the Framework of Educational Informatics.” Acta Systemica-IIAS International Journal, vol 6, no. 1, 2006, pp. 1-6.

• A pilot study on honeybees testing the effects of non-thermal, high frequency electromagnetic radiation on beehive weight and flight return behavior.   In exposed hives, bees constructed 21% fewer cells in the hive frames after 9 days than those unexposed.

Sainudeen, Sahib.S. “Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Clashes with Honey Bees.” International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, no. 5, 2011.

• Recently a sharp decline in population of honey bees has been observed in Kerala. Although the bees are susceptible to diseases and attacked by natural enemies like wasps, ants and wax moth, constant vigilance on the part of the bee keepers can over come these adverse conditions. The present plunge in population (< 0.01) was not due to these reasons. It was caused by man due to unscientific proliferation of towers and mobile phones.”

• Six colonies of honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) were selected. Three colonies were selected as test colonies (T1,T2&T3) and the rest were as control (C1,C2&C3). The test colonies were provided with mobile phones in working conditions with frequency of 900 MHz for 10 minutes for a short period of ten days. After ten days the worker bees never returned hives in the test colonies. The massive amount of radiation produced by mobile phones and towers is actually frying the navigational skills of the honey bees and preventing them from returning back to their hives.

• The study concludes, “More must also be done to compensate individuals and communities put at risk. Insurance covering diseases related to towers, such as cancer, should be provided for free to people living in 1 km radius around the tower. Independent monitoring of radiation levels and overall health of the community and nature surrounding towers is necessary to identify hazards early. Communities need to be given the opportunity to reject cell towers and national governments need to consider ways of growing their cellular networks without constantly exposing people to radiation.”

“The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment.” Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly, resolution 1815, 2011.

• The potential health effects of the very low frequency of electromagnetic fields surrounding power lines and electrical devices are the subject of ongoing research and a significant amount of public debate. While electrical and electromagnetic fields in certain frequency bands have fully beneficial effects which are applied in medicine, other non-ionising frequencies, be they sourced from extremely low frequencies, power lines or certain high frequency waves used in the fields of radar, telecommunications and mobile telephony, appear to have more or less potentially harmful, non-thermal, biological effects on plants, insects and animals, as well as the human body when exposed to levels that are below the official threshold values. One must respect the precautionary principle and revise the current threshold values; waiting for high levels of scientific and clinical proof can lead to very high health and economic costs, as was the case in the past with asbestos, leaded petrol and tobacco

• As regards standards or threshold values for emissions of electromagnetic fields of all types and frequencies, the Assembly strongly recommends that the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is applied, covering both the so-called thermal effects and the athermic or biological effects of electromagnetic emissions or radiation. Moreover, the precautionary principle should be applied when scientific evaluation does not allow the risk to be determined with sufficient certainty.

Kimmel, Stefan, et al. “Electromagnetic radiation: influences on honeybees (Apis mellifera). IIAS-InterSymp Conference, 2007.

• 39.7% of the non-irradiated bees had returned to their hives while only 7.3% of the irradiated bees had.

Clarke, Dominic, et al. “Detection and Learning of Floral Electric Fields by Bumblebees.” Science, vol. 340, no. 6128, 2013, pp. 66-9. 5

• “We report a formerly unappreciated sensory modality in bumblebees (Bombus terrestris), detection of floral electric fields. Because floral electric fields can change within seconds, this sensory modality may facilitate rapid and dynamic communication between flowers and their pollinators.”

Gegear, Robert J. et al. “Animal Cryptochromes Mediate Magnetoreception by an Unconventional Photochemical Mechanism.” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7282, 2010, pp. 804.

• “A team of neurobiologists that has investigated the mysteries of monarch migration for many years now reports that photoreceptor proteins found in monarch butterflies are linked to animal navigation. Their research finds that two types of photoreceptor proteins not only allow the butterflies to see UV light (light that is less than 420nm long, and thus, is invisible to humans), but also allows them to sense the Earth’s geomagnetic field. These photoreceptor proteins are known as cryptochromes.”

Oschman, James and Nora Oschman. “Electromagnetic communication and olfaction in insects.” Frontier Perspectives, 2004.

“Report on Possible Impacts of Communication Towers on Wildlife Including Birds and Bees.”  Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, 2010.

• This report details the on impacts of communication towers on wildlife including birds and bees submitted to MoEF. It  warns of harmful radiation and recommends special laws to protect urban flora & fauna from threats radiation emerging from mobile towers.

Sivani, S., and D. Sudarsanam. “Impacts of radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) from cell phone towers and wireless devices on biosystem and ecosystem – A Review.” Biology and Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, 2012, pp. 202–16.

• There is an urgent need for further research  and “of the 919 research papers collected on birds, bees, plants, other animals, and humans, 593 showed impacts, 180 showed no impacts, and 196 were inconclusive studies”.

• “One can take the precautionary principle approach and reduce RF-EMF radiation effects of cell phone towers by relocating towers away from densely populated areas, increasing height of towers or changing the direction of the antenna.”

Malkemper, E.P., et al. “Magnetoreception in the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus): influence of weak frequency-modulated radio frequency fields.”Scientific Reports, vol. 4, no. 9917, 2015.

• Wood mice exposed to a 0.9 to 5 MHz frequency sweep changed their preference from north-south to east-west. In contrast to birds, however, a constant frequency field tuned to the Larmor frequency (1.33 MHz) had no effect on mouse orientation. In sum, we demonstrated magnetoreception in wood mice and provide first evidence for a radical-pair mechanism in a mammal.Open Access Paper:http://bit.ly/1zh1J91

• In sum, we show that wood mice possess a magnetic sense that they use to position their nests along the NNE-SSW axis relative to the magnetic field. The NNE-SSW preference was not altered by RF fields delivered at the Larmor frequency, but was shifted by approximately 90° by a RF frequency sweep (0.9–5 MHz repeated at 1 kHz) at an intensity of only ~5% that of the Larmor frequency stimulus.

• The results point to the involvement of a radical pair mechanism, the first such evidence for a mammal, although further research is needed to provide a more thorough characterization of the underlying mechanism.

• The RF magnetic fields applied here have peak intensities below the ICNIRP guidelines for general public exposure (63, i.e., Brms = 0.92 µT/f [MHz], or Bpeak = 1.30 µT/f [MHz]) considered as harmless for human health. Yet, we show that they are sufficient to affect behaviour in a mammal.

Birds

Schwarze, S.,, et al. “Weak Broadband Electromagnetic Fields are More Disruptive to Magnetic Compass Orientation in a Night-Migratory Songbird (Erithacus rubecula) than Strong Narrow-Band Fields.” Front Behav Neurosci., vol. 10, no. 55, 2016.

• Magnetic compass orientation in night-migratory songbirds is embedded in the visual system and seems to be based on a light-dependent radical pair mechanism. Recent findings suggest that both broadband electromagnetic fields ranging from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz and narrow-band fields at the so-called Larmor frequency for a free electron in the Earth’s magnetic field can disrupt this mechanism. However, due to local magnetic fields generated by nuclear spins, effects specific to the Larmor frequency are difficult to understand considering that the primary sensory molecule should be organic and probably a protein. We therefore constructed a purpose-built laboratory and tested the orientation capabilities of European robins in an electromagnetically silent environment, under the specific influence of four different oscillating narrow-band electromagnetic fields, at the Larmor frequency, double the Larmor frequency, 1.315 MHz or 50 Hz, and in the presence of broadband electromagnetic noise covering the range from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz. Our results indicated that the magnetic compass orientation of European robins could not be disrupted by any of the relatively strong narrow-band electromagnetic fields employed here, but that the weak broadband field very efficiently disrupted their orientation.

Engels, S. et al. “Anthropogenic electromagnetic noise disrupts magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird.” Nature, vol. 509, 2014, pp. 353–6.

• Scientists found that migrating robins became disorientated when exposed to electromagnetic fields at levels far lower than the safety threshold for humans. “Here we show that migratory birds are unable to use their magnetic compass in the presence of urban electromagnetic noise…These fully double-blinded tests document a reproducible effect of anthropogenic electromagnetic noise on the behavior of an intact vertebrate.”

Balmori A. “Possible Effects of Electromagnetic Fields from Phone Masts on a Population of White Stork (Ciconia ciconia).” Electromagn Biol Med, vol. 24, no. 2, 2005, pp. 109-19.

• Interesting behavioral observations of the white stork nesting sites located within 100m of one or several cell site antennas were carried out. These results are compatible with the possibility that microwaves are interfering with the reproduction of white storks and would corroborate the results of laboratory research by other authors In far away areas, where the radiation decreases progressively, the chronic exposure can also have long term effects. Effects from antennas on the habitat of birds are difficult to quantify, but they can cause a serious deterioration, generating silent areas without male singers or reproductive couples.

Kavokin, K., et al. “Magnetic orientation of garden warblers (Sylvia borin) under 1.4 MHz radiofrequency magnetic field.” Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, vol. 11, no. 97, 2014.

• “Birds in experimental cages, deprived of visual information, showed the seasonally appropriate direction of intended flight with respect to the magnetic meridian. Weak radiofrequency (RF) magnetic field (190 nT at 1.4 MHz) disrupted this orientation ability.”

• “These results may be considered as an independent replication of earlier experiments, performed by the group of R. and W. Wiltschko with European robins (Erithacus rubecula). Confirmed outstanding sensitivity of the birds’ magnetic compass to RF fields in the lower megahertz range demands for a revision of one of the mainstream theories of magnetoreception, the radical-pair model of birds’ magnetic compass.”

• “As discussed above, the high sensitivity of the birds’ magnetic compass to RF fields, found in [21,22,24] and now confirmed by us, is difficult to explain within the existing radical-pair theory ….”

Cammaerts, M.C. and Johansson, O. “Ants can be used as bio-indicators to reveal biological effects of electromagnetic waves from some wireless apparatus.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, 2014, pp. 282-8.

• “the linear and angular speed of ants are immediately altered by the presence of EMF/RF fields.  Based on these results, the authors advise users to deactivate the WiFi function of their PC/laptop.”

Margaritis, L.H., et al. “Drosophila oogenesis as a biomarker responding to EMF sources.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 165-89.

• A total of 280 different experiments were performed. Exposure to wireless devices such as WiFi, baby monitors, and phones created statistically significant effects regarding reproduction and cell death apoptosis induction, even at very low intensity levels (0.3 V/m bluetooth radiation), well below ICNIRP’s guidelines.

Balmori, A. “Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 29, no. 1-2, 2010, pp. 31-5.

• Eggs and tadpoles of the common frog were exposed to electromagnetic radiation from cell phone antennas for two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the frogs development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. “This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.”

Baker, R.R., J.G. Mather and J.H. Kennaugh. “Magnetic bones in human sinuses.” Nature, vol. 301, no. 5895, 1983, pp. 79-80.

• Evidence continues to accumulate that a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, can detect and orient to ambient magnetic fields (for examples see refs 2-4). Since the discovery that magnetic orientation by bacteria was due to the presence within the organism of magnetic particles of the ferric/ferrous oxide, magnetite, the search has begun for other biogenic deposits of inorganic magnetic material and ways in which the possession of such material might confer on the organism the ability to orient to ambient magnetic fields. Such magnetic material, often identified as magnetite, has been discovered in bees, homing pigeons, dolphins and various other organisms, including man. A variety of hypotheses for the use of magnetite in magnetic field detection have been proposed. We report here that bones from the region of the sphenoid/ethmoid sinus complex of humans are magnetic and contain deposits of ferric iron. The possible derivations and functions of these deposits are discussed.

Plants And Trees

Halgamuge, M.N. “Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, 2017, pp. 213-235.

• “Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p < 0.001). Additionally, our analysis of the results from these reported studies demonstrates that the maize, roselle, pea, fenugreek, duckweeds, tomato, onions and mungbean plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies…”

Waldmann-Selsam, C., et al. “Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 572, 2016, pp. 554-69.

Ernst D.A. and K.J. Lohmann. “Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.”. Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 219, pt. 12, pp. 1827-32. 2016

• The Caribbean spiny lobster,Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth’s magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e., toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e., toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors.

Gustavino, B., et al. “Exposure to 915 MHz radiation induces micronuclei in Vicia faba root tips.” Mutagenesis, vol. 31, no. 2, 2016, pp. 187-92.

• The increasing use of mobile phones and wireless networks raised a great debate about the real carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure associated with these devices. Conflicting results are reported by the great majority of in vivo and in vitro studies on the capability of RF-EMF exposure to induce DNA damage and mutations in mammalian systems. Aimed at understanding whether less ambiguous responses to RF-EMF exposure might be evidenced in plant systems with respect to mammalian ones, in the present work the mutagenic effect of RF-EMF has been studied through the micronucleus (MN) test in secondary roots of Vicia faba seedlings exposed to mobile phone transmission in controlled conditions, inside a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell.

• Exposure of roots was carried out for 72h using a continuous wave (CW) of 915 MHz radiation at three values of equivalent plane wave power densities (23, 35 and 46W/m2). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured with a calorimetric method and the corresponding values were found to fall in the range of 0.4-1.5W/kg.

• Results of three independent experiments show the induction of a significant increase of MN frequency after exposure, ranging from a 2.3-fold increase above the sham value, at the lowest SAR level, up to a 7-fold increase at the highest SAR. These findings are in agreement with the limited number of data on cytogenetic effects detected in other plant systems exposed to mobile phone RF-EMF frequencies and clearly show the capability of radiofrequency exposure to induce DNA damage in this eukaryotic cell system.

• It is worth noticing that this range of SAR values is well below the international limits for localised exposure (head, trunk), according to the ICNIRP guidelines (35) and IEEE std C95.1 (38), which are 10 (8.0) W/kg for occupational exposure and 2.0 (1.6) W/kg for general public exposure respectively.

Halgamuge, Malka N., See Kye Yak and Jacob L. Eberhardt. “Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 36, no. 2, 2015, pp. 87-95.

• The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated.

• The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m−1) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m−1) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m−1) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated.

• Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field.

Senavirathna, M.D., et al. “Nanometer-scale elongation rate fluctuations in the Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) stem were altered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation.” Plant Signal Behav, vol. 9, no. 3, 2014.

• Statistically significant changes to this plant from a non thermal effect.

Soran, M.L., et al. “Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.” Journal of Plant Physiology, vol. 171, no. 15, 2014, pp. 1436-43.

• Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

• The above is only a small sampling of the research showing biological effects at non thermal levels on living organisms.

Fedrowitz, Maren. “Cows: A big model for EMF research, somewhere between Vet-Journals and “Nature”.” The Bioelectromagnetics Society, 2014.

• Effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on cows have been frequently discussed in public media as well as in specialist journals and meetings with agricultural, veterinary or dairy backgrounds. Indeed, in view of the available literature, it does seem that cows show EMF susceptibilities and respond to environmental exposures of a broad range of frequencies and properties:

• Cows are sensitive to the Earth´s magnetic field. Bovine magnetoreception can be influenced by external EMF, e.g. powerlines.

• Several physiological alterations in dairy cows exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) EMF were reported without major indications for adverse health effects. Notably, the observed effects seem to be dependent on the magnetic field component or on combined electric and magnetic fields rather than on electric field exposure alone.

• Cows are sensitive to earth currents (stray voltage) associated with transients in particular harmonics. Milk production, health, and behavior seem to be negatively affected.

• Bovine responses to radiofrequency (RF) exposure include avoidance behavior, reduced ruminating time, and alterations in oxidative stress. These findings indicate possible adverse health effects. However, most of the studies have critical points (one-herd-case report, logistic problems in study design, lack of appropriate exposure assessment) that confirmation of the observed RF effects is clearly needed, though studies in such big animals are time-, place-, and money-consuming, and exposure assessment and dosimetry are challenging issues.

• Overall, cattle seem to be affected by environmental EMF exposure. Cows align to geomagnetic field lines and are influenced by ELF EMF

Li, Ying, et al. “Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Developmental Toxicity and Apoptosis in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos.” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 162, no. 1, 2014, pp. 324-32.

• In conclusion, the overall results demonstrated that ELF-MF exposure has detrimental effects on the embryonic development of zebrafish by affecting the hatching, decreasing the heart rate, and inducing apoptosis, although such effects were not mortal threat. The results also indicate that zebrafish embryos can serve as a reliable model to investigate the biological effect of ELF-MF.

Harkless, Ryan, Muntather Al-Quraishi and Mary C. Vagula. “Radiation hazards of radio frequency waves on the early embryonic development of Zebrafish.”SPIE Proceedings, vol. 9112, 2014.

• With the growing use of wireless devices in almost all day-to-day activities, exposure to radio-frequency radiation has become an immediate health concern. It is imperative that the effects of such radiation not only on humans, but also on other organisms be well understood. In particular, it is critical to understand if RF radiation has any bearing on the gene expression during embryonic development, as this is a crucial and delicate phase for any organism. Owing to possible effects that RF radiation may have on gene expression, it is essential to explore the carcinogenic or teratogenic properties that it may show. This study observed the effects of RF radiation emitted from a cellular telephone on the embryonic development of zebrafish.

• This study observed the effects of RF radiation emitted from a cellular telephone on the embryonic development of zebra fish. The expression of the gene shha plays a key role in the early development of the fish. This gene has homologs in humans as well as in other model organisms. Additionally, several biomarkers indicative of cell stress were examined: including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation (LPO).

• Results show a significant decrease in the expression of shha, a significant decrease in LDH activity. There was no significant increase in SOD and LPO activity.

Takebe, Arika, et al. “Zebrafish respond to the geomagnetic field by bimodal and group-dependent orientation.”Scientific Reports, vol 2, no. 727, 2012.

• In this study, we found that zebrafish, a model organism suitable for genetic manipulation, responded to a magnetic field as weak as the geomagnetic field.

Haggerty, Katie. “Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings.” International Journal of Forestry Research, vol 2010, no. 836278, 2010.

• “This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline.”

Additional References:

Magneto-reception in cows and other mammals:

Slaby, P., K. Tomanova and M. Vacha. “Cattle on pastures do align along the North-South axis, but the alignment depends on herd density.” J Comp Physiol A, vol. 199, 2013, pp. 695-701.

Hart, V., et al. “Dogs are sensitive to small variations of the Earth´s magnetic field.” Frontiers Zoology, vol. 10, no. 80, 2013.

Eder, S.H.K., et al. “Magnetic characterization of isolated candidate vertebrate magnetoreceptor cells.” PNAS, vol. 109, 2012, pp. 12022-7.

Cerveny, J., et al. “Directional preference max enhance hunting accuracy in foraging foxes.” Biol Lett, vol. 7, 2011, pp. 355-7.

Hert, J., et al. “No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found.” J Comp Physiol A, vol. 197, 2011, pp. 677-82.

Begall, S., et al. “Further support for the alignment of cattle along field lines: reply to Hert et al.” J Comp Physiol A, vol. 197, 2011, pp. 1127-33.

Cressey, D. “The mystery of the magnetic cows.” Nature News, 2011

Burda, H., et al. “Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields disrupt magnetic alignment of ruminants.” PNAS, vol. 106, 2009, pp. 5708-13.

Cressey, D. “Return of the B-field bovines.” Nature News Blog, 2009

Cressey, D. “Magnetic cows are visible from space.” Nature News, 2008

Begall, S., et al. “Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer.” PNAS, vol. 105, 2008, pp. 13451-5.

Effects of ELF electric and magnetic fields in (dairy) cows:

Stelletta, C., et al. “Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electro-magnetic fields on circadian rhythms and distribution of some leukocyte differentiation antigens in dairy cows.” Biomed Environ Sci, vol. 20, no. 2, 2007, pp. 164-70.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and H.G. Monardes. Exposure of pregnant dairy heifer to magnetic fields at 60 Hz and 30 µT.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 28, no. 6, 2007, pp. 471-6.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and M. Rodriguez. “Plasma concentrations of thyroxine in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields.”Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 27, 2006, pp. 553-9.

Nguyen, D.H., L. Richard and J.F. Burchard. “Exposure chamber for determining the biological effects of electric and magnetic fields on dairy cows.”Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 26, no. 2, 2005, pp. 138-44.

Rodriguez, M., et al. “Blood melatonin and prolactin concentrations in dairy cows exposed to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields during 8 h photoperiods.”Bioelectromagnetics, 25, 2004, pp. 508-15.

Burchard, J.F., et al. “Lack of effect of 10 kV/m 60 Hz electric field exposure on pregnant heifer hormones.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 25, no. 4, 2004, pp. 308-12.

Burchard, J.F., H. Monardes and D.H. Nguyen. “Effects of 10 kV, 30 µT, 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields on milk production and feed intake in nonpregnant dairy cattle.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 24, 2003, pp. 557-63.

Rodriguez, M., et al. “Responses of the estrous cycle in dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields (60 Hz) during 8-h photoperiods.” Anim Reprod Sci, vol. 77, no. 1-2, 2003, pp. 11-20.

Broucek, J., et al. “Effect of low magnetic field on calves during prenatal development.” Tierärztl Umschau, vol. 57, 2002, pp. 241-8.

Rodriguez, M., et al. “Effect of electric and magnetic fields (60 Hz) on production, and levels of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1, in lactating, pregnant cows subjected to short days.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 85, 2002, pp. 2843-9.

Broucek, J., et al. “Effect of low magnetic field on dairy cows.” Tierärztl Umschau, vol. 56, 2001, pp. 364-9.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and E. Block. “Macro- and trace element concentrations in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields.” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 20, 1999, pp. 358-64.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen, E. Block. “Effects of electric and magnetic fields on nocturnal melatonin concentrations in dairy cows.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 81, 1998, pp. 722-27.

Burchard, J.F., et al. “Effects of electromagnetic fields on the levels of biogenic amine metabolites, quinolinic acid, and beta-endorphin in the cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows.” Neurochem Res, vol. 23, 1998, pp. 1527-31.

Burchard, J.F., D.H. Nguyen and E. Block. “Progesterone concentrations during estrous cycle of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields.”Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 19, no. 7, 1998, pp. 438-43.

Burchard, J.F., et al. “Biological effects of electric and magnetic fields on productivity of dairy cows.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 79, 1996, pp. 1549-54.

Angell, R.F., et al. “Effects of a high-voltage direct-current transmission line on beef cattle production. Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 11, no. 4, 1990, pp. 273-82.

Algers, B. and J. Hultgren. “Effects of long-term exposure to a 400 kV, 50 Hz transmission line on estrous and fertility in cows.” Prev Vet Med, vol. 5, no. 1, 1987, pp. 21-36.

Algers, B. and K. Hennichs. The effect of exposure to 400 kV transmission lines on the fertility of cowsPrev Vet Med, vol. 3, 1985, pp. 351-61

Effects of stray voltage in cows:

Hillman, D., et al. “Relationship of electric power quality to milk production of dairy herds – Field study with literature review.” Sci Total Environ, vol. 447, 2013, pp. 500-14.

Erdreich, L.S., et al. “Meta-analysis of stray voltage on dairy cattle.” J Dairy Sci, vol. 92, no. 12, 2009, pp. 5951-63.

Effects of radiofrequency fields in cows:

Hässig, M., et al. “Influence of non ionizing radiation of base stations on the activity of redox proteins in bovines.” BMC Vet Res, vol. 10, no. 136, 2014.

Hässig, M., et al. Prevalence of nuclear cataract in Swiss veal calves and its possible association with mobile telephone antenna base stations.” Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd, vol. 151, 2009, pp. 471-8.

Löscher, W. “Survey of effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on production, health and behavior of farm animals.” Prakt Tierarzt, vol. 84, no. 11, 2003.

Wenzel, C., A.C. Wöhr and J. Unshelm. “The effect of electromagnetic transmitters on behaviour of dairy cows.” Prakt Tierarzt, vol. 83, 2002, pp. 260-6.

Löscher, W. and G. Käs. “Behavioral abnormalities in a dairy cow herd near a TV and radio transmitting antenna.” Prakt Tierarzt, vol. 79, 1998, pp. 437-4.

Stärk, K.D., et al. “Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle.” J Pineal Res, vol. 22, no. 4, 1997, pp. 171-6.

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Mount Rainier at sunset. Opponents of the plan for cellular service see it as an unwelcome desecration of nature. Photograph: Inge Johnsson / Alamy/Alamy

 

They already paved Paradise and put up a parking lot. Now the famous site on the south slope of Mount Rainier National Park’s 14,410ft-tall volcano could be wired for cellular service.

The park, which encompasses 230,000 acres of the Cascades mountain range in Washington state, has prepared an environmental assessment for a proposal to allow Verizon, T-Mobile and AT&T to affix a wireless antenna to the park’s Jackson visitor center.

The antenna would extend coverage around Paradise, a popular destination for visitors known as one of the snowiest places on Earth, but not to the top of the mountain. The proposal has sparked a contentious debate about whether access to smartphones enhances or diminishes the great outdoors.

They are extending the electronic tendrils of commercialization deep into designated wilderness

Jeff Ruch, Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility

Just 100 miles south of Seattle, the park is nevertheless remote: 97% is designated wilderness. The park received 492 comments on the proposal during an earlier stage of the planning process, and received 249 in favor and 241 opposed.

Proponents of cell service argue that it would improve safety in a park that conducts 40 to 50 search and rescue missions each year. One potential benefit is that the park could send real-time information about weather or other hazards to visitors.

But the environmental assessment points out that accessibility can be a mixed bag. Park staff use two-way radios to communicate, and will continue to do so even if the cell antenna is approved. And the study notes that access to cell service “has the potential to increase confidence and risk taking by backcountry travelers relying on digital communication devices rather than traditional methods”.

Access to cell service on roadways can also increase distracted driving, the assessment notes, a safety hazard in its own right.

 

 

Protecting ourselves from two-way microwave radiation

Protecting ourselves from two-way microwave radiation

Some may remember back in the 1990s when the first oncologist said his patient died of unusual tumors on the side of her brain that lined up with the antennas in her cell phone. Most folks today don’t realize that all wireless devices, from cell towers to routers, cell phones to tablets, baby monitors to gaming devices and wearables, all operate off of the same two-way microwave radiation.

For years, world scientists have been researching the effects of this low-level, non-ionizing radiation. Thousands of studies have been done, with the vast majority showing biological harm in the form of cancer, infertility, autism, Alzheimer’s, cognitive impairment, behavioral and learning issues, digital addiction, insomnia, headaches, skin rashes, racing heart, ringing ears, nosebleeds and more.

The U.S. National Toxicology Program is in the midst of a multi-year, $25 million landmark study on this type of radiation. In the first set of peer-reviewed findings, they discovered statistically significant DNA damage, and brain and heart tumors with none in the control group. More findings are expected at the end of this year.

Massachusetts is taking a leadership role in protecting the public. Ashland Public Schools has become the first in the nation to take measures while awaiting further instruction from state leaders. Ashland has posted signs in each classroom advising wireless devices be turned off when not in use, wireless access points be turned on only when needed, and as the manufacturers’ fine print indicates, never keep an active device on one’s body.

On Beacon Hill, five legislators have introduced bills to address wireless radiation and public health. The first two bills are scheduled for public hearing on Tuesday, June 20, 1-4 p.m. Senator Michael O. Moore’s S.1864 will give residents the right to choose a non-radiation-emitting public utility meter (gas, electric, water, solar, etc.). Senator Julian Cyr’s S.108 addresses safe use of hand-held devices by children.

In the fall, additional bills by Senator Karen Spilka, Senator Cyr, Senator Donald Humason and Representative Carolyn Dykema will come up for public hearing to educate our doctors, schools and the general public on wireless radiation risks and safer technology practices.

Until these bills are enacted and/or biologically safe mobile technology is brought to market, there are simple but important measures we can all choose to reduce our radiation exposure: connect to the internet via hard-wired fiber optics and Ethernet cables, then turn off the wireless emissions at work, home, school and leisure spaces. When on the go, keep devices in airplane mode except when needed as this disables the radiation transmissions, and never give a child a wireless device in active mode.

Other best practices are to create radiation-free white zones, especially in sleeping areas so the radiation doesn’t disrupt our body’s ability to cell repair while we sleep. Distances of a quarter to a half mile (for those with health complications) minimum should be established from cell towers, including the street-level antennas being installed in neighborhoods to support 5G infrastructure.

More than 200 leading scientists and public health experts have submitted an International Appeal to the World Health Organization and United Nations seeking their leadership in bringing public policy in line with current scientific evidence of harm.

 

Following the lead from France, Israel, Russia and other countries, Massachusetts legislators are to be congratulated for taking important first steps to protect the commonwealth’s residents.

Those wishing to learn more and/or submit testimony for the bills are encouraged to go to tinyurl.com/MA-EMF-Bills.

Cece Doucette lives in Ashland.

Following the lead from France, Israel, Russia and other countries, Massachusetts legislators are to be congratulated for taking important first steps to protect the commonwealth’s residents.

Those wishing to learn more and/or submit testimony for the bills are encouraged to go to tinyurl.com/MA-EMF-Bills.

Cece Doucette lives in Ashland.

Major Canadian study finds cell phone use increases risk for brain cancer

Am J Epidemiol. 2017 May 23. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwx157. [Epub ahead of print]

Probabilistic multiple-bias modelling applied to the Canadian data from the INTERPHONE study of mobile phone use and risk of glioma, meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors.

Abstract

We undertook a re-analysis of the Canadian data from the thirteen-country INTERPHONE case-control study (2001-2004), which evaluated the association between mobile phone use and risk of brain, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland tumors. The main publication of the multinational INTERPHONE study concluded that “biases and errors prevent a causal interpretation”. We applied a probabilistic multiple-bias model to address possible biases simultaneously, using validation data from billing records and non-participant questionnaires as information on recall error and selective participation. Our modelling sought to adjust for these sources of uncertainty and to facilitate interpretation. For glioma, the odds ratio comparing highest quartile of use (over 558 lifetime hours) to non-regular users was 2.0 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 3.4). The odds ratio was 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 4.1) when adjusted for selection and recall biases. There was little evidence of an increase in the risk of meningioma, acoustic neuroma, or parotid gland tumors in relation to mobile phone use. Adjustments for selection and recall biases did not materially affect interpretation in our Canadian results.

KEYWORDS:

bias; bias modelling; brain tumors; cancer; case-control study; head and neck tumors; mobile phones

PMID:
28535174
DOI:
10.1093/aje/kwx157

Dirty Electricity from LEDs

Dirty Electricity from LEDs - Electric Fields

Dirty Electricity from LEDs

Many folks interested high fidelity sound systems or low-EMF environments want to minimize electromagnetic interference (AKA: EMI, High-Voltage Transients, Electrical Noise, and Dirty Electricity) from lighting systems. Compact fluorescent lightbulbs (CFLs) – the curly pig tail variety with some mercury in them – are notoriously “dirty” and create significant EMI. As the lighting industry and energy code gravitate toward Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), more and more are curious about dirty electricity from LEDs.

LED Dirty Electricity Pie Chart for One Bulb

LED Dirty Electricity Pie Chart for One Bulb

LED Dirty Electricity Pie Chart for One Bulb

Method for Testing Dirty Electricity from LEDs

While there are many methods for testing dirty electricity, this is how we embarked on this quick comparison study of several bulbs with satisfactory other lighting characteristics.

Magnetic Field (MF) and Electric Field (EF) strength were measured with a Gigahertz Solutions NFA 1000 Low Frequency EMF Meter. MF and EF measurements were recorded at distances of 1 inch, 3 inches, 6 inches, and 12 inches from each bulb. To provide consistency, lamp and extension cord positions were not moved during or between sampling events for each lightbulb. Graphs and tables of collected data are displayed below. CREE, Tala, FEIT Electric, USHIO Utopia 2, Sylvania, and Sunlite A19 bulbs were tested, as well as GE Helical and GE Reveal compact fluorescent bulbs (CFL) and an incandescent bulb from an unknown brand. EF and MF levels were also measured with no bulb attached for ambient concentrations.

Dirty Electricity from LEDs - Magnetic Fields

Dirty Electricity from LEDs - Electric Fields

Dirty Electricity From LEDs Bandwidth Comparison Chart

Dirty Electricity From LEDs Bandwidth Comparison Chart

Results from Dirty Electricity Testing of LEDs

The highest Dirty Electricity from LEDs MF levels were observed with the CREE and GE Helical bulbs. These bulbs measured above 20 milligauss (mG) at a 1 inch distance, while all other bulbs measured below 4 mG at the same distance. The Tala and Sunlite A19 bulb measurements were similar to ambient levels.

The highest EF levels were observed with the CREE, Sunlite A19, and incandescent bulbs. All bulbs were measured at higher than observed at ambient concentrations.

The CREE, Tala, and FEIT Electric bulbs measured the highest in dirty electricity.

The 50/60 Hertz electricity bandwidth range of the Tala, Sunlite A19, and incandescent bulbs contributed to over 97% of the total electric field; The 50/60 Hertz range of the Sylvania, USHIO Utopia 2, FEIT Electric, and CREE bulbs contributed to over 85% of the total electric field; The 50/60 Hertz range of the GE Helical and GE Reveal CFL Bulbs contributed to 59% and 71% respectively of the total electric field.

We thank Clear Light Ventures for funding this study and supporting education about dirty electricity and impacts to human health and wellbeing.

This is our third blog about LEDs and dirty electricity. See EMF LED Blog 1 and Not All LEDs are The Same for Dirty Electricity Blog 2 for additional information.

 

http://healthybuildingscience.com/2017/06/05/dirty-electricity-leds/?inf_contact_key=791ba5665b529dbd21274331258aaafef959e67c8ccff06750a0602fb30753d5

FOX43 Finds Out: Smart meter controversy

Demand you keep your mechanical meter or so called smart meter replaced with mechanical meter!!! http://www.freedomtaker.com where you can download demand letter and docs to have it removed…..Sandaura

FOX43 Finds Out: Smart meter controversy

SPRINGETTSBURY TOWNSHIP, YORK COUNTY — The smart meter roll out is happening across central Pennsylvania right now and several people have contacted FOX43 Finds Out to look into the issue.

“We were the last people in the neighborhood. We pushed it as far as we could.”

Chip Nace’s family has lived in Springettsbury Township, York County for decades.

For years, their electricity was read on a mechanical meter like this one.

Then, the family started getting letters in the mail from Met Ed saying they needed to make the switch to smart meters.

After ignoring the issue for a few months, another letter came with a warning.

“They sent a 10 day shut off notice,” said Nace.

That’s why Nace finally gave in and someone came to install the new smart meter.

“It’s their way or no way basically.”

Nace is worried that smart meters haven’t been around long enough to really be studied to know how they work and how they impact us.

“It just seems like an unsafe unit and they’re just throwing them out on people’s homes.”

The Pennsylvania Utility Commission insists the meters can save customers money and are safe.

Claiming smart meters use radio frequency  and that these new meters use less radio frequency than a cordless phone, cell phone or microwave.

However, Nace has another concern.

“There’s plenty of issues of homes completely burning down or the electricity may pass through and blow up the entire box or blow up the outlets.”

A quick search on YouTube  and you’ll find plenty of videos of fires and power outages claiming to be sparked by a smart meter and a Google search will turn up plenty of groups that say a lot of the same.

Power companies, state and federal government say otherwise.

When asked about the issue, a spokesperson for First Energy Corp, which runs Met Rd and Pennelec says “Safety and operating standards address factors such as humidity, rain, voltage surge and others to ensure meters operate properly when functioning within certified operational parameters.”

The power companies also say the new meters are more energy efficient and accurate.

With mechanical meters, most power companies send a meter reader out every other month.

So, the in between month reading is likely an estimate of your power usage, not the exact amount.

The smart meters, which are connected wirelessly,  can be read remotely and don`t require a meter reader.

“I get it, they’re trying to eliminate the meter reader coming out and reading the meter. Again, you’re eliminating jobs, your taking people’s work from them,” said Nace.

First Energy Corp officials say that`s not the case.

Telling us “More than 40 full-time meter readers have been successfully placed in other roles throughout the company over the past year.”

Under Act 129 most power companies in Pennsylvania need to install the smart meters on homes and businesses by 2023.

“The biggest thing is an opt out. I just want the choice to say no, that’s it.”

However, Pennsylvania doesn’t offer an opt out.

The Pennsylvania Utility Commission says “Installation of a smart meter is a condition of service to more accurately reflect rates and usage, and will ensure no disruption to your service.”

“If they want to offer them, that’s fine, but the fact that there forcing people to take them and the fact that they’re willing to shut your electricity off to get you to that point to put it back on, I don’t think that’s the right thing to do,” said Nace.

There is legislation in Pennsylvania right now that could change the no opt out rule.

Representative Mike Reese out of western PA has introduced a few bills in the State House Consumer Affairs Committee to either repeal the mandate  or at least give a chance for people to say no.

Similar legislation has been introduced in the past, but just didn’t really go anywhere.

Pennsylvania is not the only state that is rolling out the smart meters.

States like California, Maryland and Maine do offer opt outs.

In some of those states saying no to the smart meters does require a fee.

 

 

FOX43 Finds Out: Smart meter controversy