Medical studies prove Non-thermal Radiation has a negative bio-effect on living things which include Smart Meters

This abstract is for a presentation made an international conference entitled “The Precautionary

EMF Approach: Rationale, Legislation and Implementation”, convened by the International

Commission for Electromagnetic Safety and hosted by the City of Benevento, Italy, in February


Non-thermal effects of EMF upon the mammalian brain

Leif G. Salford MD, PhD, Dept of Neurosurgery, Bertil Persson, PhD, Jacob

Eberhardt DMSc, PhD, Gustav Grafström PhD and Lars Malmgren D.Eng, Dept of

Medical Radiation Physics and Arne Brun MD, PhD, Dept of Neuropathology, Dept

of Neurosurgery, Lund University, Lund Sweden.

The world´s largest biological experiment ever, takes place since few years and now

one third of the world´s population is included in the experiment as test persons,

voluntarily exposing their brains to electromagnetic fields produced by their mobile

phones. The other two thirds constitute a control group, however not ideal, as many

of the non-users are exposed to “passive mobile phoning” and other types of radio

frequency radiation.

The question whether the type of electromagnetic fields used in mobile

communication is harmful or not to the human body, is not clarified and the

biological effects, which have hitherto been observed in laboratories around the

world, deserve a serious evaluation by the community.

The effects of RF electromagnetic fields upon the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and

upon tumour growth in the mammalian brain have been studied by us since many

years and we have collected an extensive experimental experience in this field. While

our studies on the effects of CW and pulsed modulated microwaves at 915 MHz upon

brain tumour growth have not disclosed any growth-promoting effects in our rodent

models (Salford ea 1997a), the same RF electromagnetic fields have been revealed to

cause significantly increased leakage of albumin through the BBB of exposed rats as

compared to non-exposed animals – in large series studied since 1988 in our

laboratory. We have exposed rats to various magnetic and electromagnetic fields, as

well 915 MHz as continuous wave (CW) and pulse-modulated at various repetition

rates (4 – 200 pulses per s.), and in studies with real GSM-900 and GSM-1800


One remarkable observation in our studies is the fact that SAR values around 1

mW/kg give rise to a more pronounced albumin leakage than higher SAR values –

all at non-thermal levels (Salford ea 1992, 94, 97b, 2001, Persson ea 1996, 97). If

the reversed situation were at hand, we feel that the risk of cellular telephones, basestations

and other RF emitting sources could be managed by reduction of their

emitted energy. The situation that the weakest fields, according to our findings, are

the biologically most effective, poses a major problem. The most pronounced BBBopening

effect of the cellular telephone may not be in the most superficial layers of

the brain, but several centimetres deep in central cerebral structures! It can not be

excluded that non-users in the vicinity of the cellular phone users, may be influenced

by these weak effects. The SAR value of around 1 mW/kg is produced at a distance

of more than one meter away from the mobile phone antenna and it can be calculated

that this energy level exists centrally in the human brain or even in the contralateral

hemisphere when the mobile phone is held at the ear


If mobile communication, even at extremely low SAR values, causes the users´

own albumin to leak out through the BBB, which is meant to protect the brain,

also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain

tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurones and glial cells of the brain. It

can not be excluded that this, (especially after many years intense use) may

promote the development of autoimmune and neuro-degenerative diseases, and

we conclude that the suppliers of mobile communication – and our politicians –

have an extensive responsibility to support the exploration of these possible

risks for the users and the society. This is especially true for the new and

hitherto barely examined 3G technique which sends microwaves of a different

character, and it is quite possible that the biological effects of 3G differ from

those of GSM.     REad full paper at:



Baureus Koch CL, Sommarin M, Persson BR, Salford LG, Eberhardt JL 2003

Interaction between weak low frequency magnetic fields and cell membranes. Bioelectromagnetics Sep;


Eberhardt J, Persson BRR, , Malmgren L, Brun A, Salford LG. Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell

damage in the rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones.

Persson, B. R. R. & Salford, L. G. 1996, “Permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats induced by continuous

wave and pulse-modulated 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation exposure in TEM-cells.,” CEC-XIII-244/6/-96

edn, A. Chiabrera & J. Juutilainen, eds., EU DG XIII, Brussel, pp. 66-72.

Persson, B. R. R., Salford, L. G., & Brun, A. 1997, “Blood-Brain Barrier permeability in rats exposed to

electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication.” Wireless Networks, vol. 3, pp. 455-461.

Salford, L. G., Brun, A., Eberhardt, J., Malmgren, L., & Persson, B. 1992, “Electromagnetic field-induced

permeability of the blood-brain barrier shown by immunohistochemical methods,” in Interaction Mechanism of

Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems, B. Nordén & C. Ramel, eds., Oxford University Press,

Oxford, pp. 251-258.

Salford, L. G., Brun, A., Eberhardt, J. L., & Persson, B. R. R. 1993, “Permeability of the Blood-Brain-

Barrier Induced by 915 MHz Electromagnetic-Radiation, Continuous Wave and Modulated at 8,

16, 50 And 200 Hz“, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, vol. 30,no. 1-3, pp. 293-301.

Salford, L. G., Brun, A., Sturesson, K., Eberhardt, J. L., & Persson, B. R. R. 1994, “Permeability of the

Blood-Brain-Barrier Induced by 915 MHz Electromagnetic-Radiation, Continuous Wave and

Modulated at 8, 16, 50 And 200 Hz“, Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 535-542.

Salford LG, Brun A, Persson BRR. 1997a Brain tumour development in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields

used in wireless communication. Wireless Networks Journal. 3:463-469

Salford, L. G., Persson, B. R. R., & Brun, A. 1997 b, “Neurological Aspects on Wireless Communication,” in

Non-Thermal Effects of RF Electromagnetic Fields, vol. ICNIRP 3/97 J. H. Bernhardt, R. Matthes, & M. H.

Repacholi, eds., International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and World Health

Organization, Proc. Sem on Biol. Eff. Non-Therm. Pulsed and Amplitude Modulated RF EM Fields and Related

Health Risks, Munich Germany Nov 20 and 21, 1966, pp. 131-144.

Salford, L. G., Persson, B. R. R., Malmgren, L., & Brun, A. 2001. Téléphonie mobile et barriere Sang-cerveau

(in french) Mobile Communication and the Blood-Brain Barrier in Telephonie Mobile: Effets potentiels sur la

santé des ondes électromagnétiques de hautes fréquences, P. Lannoye, ed., Marco Pietteur, B-4053 Embourg,

Belgique, pp. 141-152.

Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren Lars and Persson BRR. 2003. Nerve cell damage in mammalian

brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environmental Health Perspectives, On-line Jan

29 2003. DOI # 10.1289/ehp.6039, in print: Environmental Health Perspectives 2003 111(7): 881-883

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